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But in his poems he is anything but stiff, and Faust ,manifests an overwhelming disrespect for etiquette and almost every thinkable propriety, including the established canons of poetic form.

The play abounds in doggdrel,. Wlty, then, is it a cliche in the English-speaking world that. It is partly because Luther's often coarse bu.. Faust is one of the relatively few great books that is not only profound and inexhaustible,but also readable, enjoyable, and fun.

Nothing in previous German literature equals the bold conception and the concentrated power of that draft, and the final scene may well be the high point of German drama, not barring the later version which the poet deliberately made less stark.

When he wrote the Urfaust, Goethe was by no means unknown. His storm-and-stress drama, Gotz von Berlich- Introduction 5 ingen and his novel on Werther were in..

Werther's suicide actually inspired many lovelorn young men and women, in France as well as Germany: Well before he was thirty; Goethe had proved himself a master of the drama, of the novel, and of lyric poetry as well.

He needed only to repeat himself to enjoy perpetual acclaim.. No s 6 Introduction only nve dramatis personae and are studies in restraint.

Tasso himself is, in Goethe's later words, "an intensified Werther"; but there is no longer any need to add the motto that Goethe had inserted in later editions of Werther: Having climaxed classicism, Goethe flnallypublished, also 'in , Faust: Around the turn of the century he took up work on Faust again, and in he finally published Part One.

The follOWing year, he published another novel, Elective Affinities; another ten years later, the orientalizing poetry of his West-Eastern Divan, including a large number of first-rate poems in an altogether new vein.

This work profoundly influenced not only all subsequent studies of Goethe but our whole approach to artists and the intricate relations between life and work.

Before Goethe, at- y 7 Introduction tempts to understand an individual had not been so strongly based on the idea of development.

He continued to write scientific essays, poetry,. Reacting against the trad. A little seamstress is seduced and made unhappy; a great scholar in all four branches of learning is the evildoer.

But for Goethe even this idea was still too terrible. His mild heart could not help putting the little seamstress, "the good soul who forgot herself but once,' close to the saints after her involuntary death; indeed, by a trick played on the devil at the decisive moment, he even brought the great scholar to heaven at just the right time- the good man' 4 8 Introduction "1th the cdark1ing aspiration'l And there, in heaven, the lovers find each other again.

Goethe once said that his nature was too conciliatory for the truly tragic. Second Part of the Tragedy," it is certainly no tragedy in the narrower, now prevalent sense of that word.

Nor is Dante's Commedia a comedy in the sense now current. And, more to the point, many. As Mephistopheles says of Gretchen: We never see him hunted by the furies, like Orestes: Rather, he loses his sight when he is a hundred years old, just before he dies in a moment of elation.

Faust's suHerlngs are incidental. In Faust, tragedy engulfs not the hero but representatives of unheroic, nono Aphorism , pp.

Introduction 9 outstanding, suffering humanity: The death of Philemon and Baucis in the fifth. It is another episode, no more.

The drama is epic, the effect cu.. In all these respects Faust is distinctly un-Greek, nonAristotelian, modern. It reminds us of Ibsen!

Happily, one need not choose; but the case for Faust must certainly depend upon a very different conception of the drama from the one Nietzsche derided.

But Goethe himself knew that. As if I myself knew that and could express it! When, however, ,I' did for' once wish as a poet to represent an idea, I did it in' shorter poems.

The only creation of larger scope in which I am aware of haVing worked with some central idea might be my Elective Atfinities.

That made the novel comprehensible to the understanding; but I should not say that this made it better. My opinion is rather this: The m01'e incommensurable and incomprehensible fo, the understanding a poetic creation may be, the better.

With their profound thoughts and ideas, which they seek everywhere and project into everything, they make life harder for themselves than they should.

Almost everybody hies to be profound; where the Germans in the "nineteenth century sought ideas, the twentieth-century American seeks recurring images and symbols.

Goethe, however, was not heartless. He laughed at the scholars; but he took pity on them. In a Conversation -he remarked: Indeed, one should indulge in such jokes more often while one is young.

What is truly astonishing about 4 Historical background.. A vast amount of scholarship has been devoted to those ancient andmedieval legends which in tiP1e caIne to.

The reason for nevertheless sketching a few high points is twofold. Some possess considerable human interest.

And the claim that Goethe's play is much more modern than is usually supposed should not be based QD Introduction 13 a complete refusal to consider the historic background of his drama.

The historic Faust was born, it seems, in Knittlingen, Wiirttemberg, about In those days, magic was also taught at the Universities of Salamanca and Toledo.

There are reports that Faust dis.. Needless to add, Luther and Melanchthon regarded Faust with horror and contempt. Others, more impressed by him, induced him to teach school, but it is said that he molested the boys entrusted to his care and, found out, had to flee to escape punish: Many traditions connect him with the city of Erfurt.

The story goes that at the university there he lectured on Homer,. But I have gone further than you think and have pledged myself to the devil with my own blood, to be his in eternity, body and soul.

How, then, can I return? Or how could I be helped? I have deliberately despised God, have committed perjury and faithlessness against him, have believed and trusted in the devil more than in 14 Introduction God; so I cannot come back to rumor console myseH with his grace" wruch I have lost.

Nor would it be honest or honorable if it had to be said about me that I had gone against my letter and seal, which after all I signed with my blood.

The devil has kept faithfully what he promised me; so I, too, want to keep faithfully what I have promised and pledged to him. Another story relates that Faust rode out of Auerbach's Keller in Leipzig ona barrel-in , to be exact.

Melanchthonwas among those who claimed that the devil accompanied Faust in the shape of a. Faust is said to have died in Staufen im Breisgau in The mst I'Faust Book" appeared in It was written in German, and the title page announced: Johann Faust, the widely acclaimed magician and black artist, how he pledged himself to the.

Compiled and prepared for the printer in several parts out of his own literary remains, as a horrible example and sincere warning for all conceited, clever, and godless people.

Submit to God, resist the devil, and he will flee from you. Cum Gratia et Privilegio. Printed in Frankfurt am Main by Johann Spies.

Then Spies published a second edition, a version in low German appeared in Lubeck, a rhymed version in Ttibingen, a Danish translation came out in , and a History of the Damnable Life and Deserved Death of Dr.

John Faustus made its appearance in England. Introduction 15 Christopher Marlowe was the first great poet to take up the theme.

Ah, Faustus, Now hast them but one bare hour to llu8, And then thou must be damn'd perpetually! Oh, Pll leap up to my Godl Who pulu medownP Seei see where Christ's blood streams in the firmamentl One drop would save my soul-half a drop: Ah, half the hour is pastl 'twill all be past anonl Introduction 16 o God.

Why wert thou not a creature wanting soul? Or why is th18l. Now, body, turn to air. Ot Lucifer will bear thee qUick to hell.

Godllook not so fierce on mel Enter DevO,s. If there must be tragedy, he would bring it about without benefit of the clergy: It is even arguable that Goethes ending, at least in the Urfaust-in the later version he added, after Mephistoplleles' "She is judged," a voice from above proclaim..

In Goethe's play, the question whether she is "judged': Goethe retained much of. For it was part of Goethe's genius that he could be serious with..

For a genius can be sparked only by a genius; and best of all by one who seems to owe everything to nature alone and thus does not repel by the troublesome perfections of art," Even if we invoke the ancients as models, Shakespeare is a far greater tragic poet than Comeille, although the latter knew the ancients very well and the former hardly at all.

Doctor Faust contains a lot of scenes which only a Shakespearean genius was capable of conceiving. You wish for a German play full of such scenes?

Of the ending, the letter says: Dot triumphl' the angel shouts at them; cyou have not vanquished humanity and. Engel, informs us that in the,.

Everything that happens to this phantom is a dream vision for the real Faust who is asleep: But Lord Byron is great only as a poet; as.

Thus he does not know either how to. Introduction 21 The question remains: The marvel of Faust is, first of all, that in a relatively small space it reflects the poet's whole career from his twenties to his eighties-the whole range of his impressions: Most of his other works reflect a single stage of his development, one or at most two styles, and thus give no idea of his versatility and his, sustained growth.

Faust is the whole opus in microcosm. Next, the immense power of Goethe's characters should be noted.

Faust leaps out of the book. Millions of young men decided they were like Faust, and some found the German destiny inbound;. Schopenhauer, in The World as Will and Representation , considered such striving as the essence not merely of man but qf the cosmos.

It is, moreover, one of the devices by which Goethe makes Mephisto an engaging personality in spite of everything. Even as Shakespeare enlists our sympathy for Lear and Coriolanus-although they behave repulsively in many ways-by wisely choosing their antagonists, Goethe forces us to sympathize with Mephistopheles.

Unlike Faust, Mephisto has a sense of humor and is even capa. It may well be that Mephistopheles is Goethe's greatest single creation, and that he has come into his Introduction own only in the twentieth century, after, Heine and Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky and Nietzsche, Freud and Shaw, Gide and Joyce, Mann and Sarb;e-who would hardly be offended at being called Mephisto's progeny -had changed our sensibilities.

It is a commonplace that Goethe's Prologue in Heavenis modeled on the first two chapters of the Book of Job, but it has not been widely noted how much his Mephisto owes to the few lines spoken.

Does Job fear God for nothing? U And after God has. All that a man has he will give for his life; but put forth your hand now and touch his bone and his flesh" and he will curse you to your face.

And it was Goethe, too, who fused this nihilism with his own inimitable sense of humor, now broad and earthy, now acidly penetrating.

Some critics still lament the fact that some of Heine's tenderest poems are punctured in the last line by a ruth-.

They do not deny that this is specificaJly modem, but it is an aspect of modernity that they oppose. It was partly for this reason that the early twentiethcentury poet Stefan George, and his very influential "Circle," considered Heine an arch-villain.

They had other reasons, too; for example, Heine's immensely witty but nasty polemic against the poet Platen, though written in , was in many ways applicable to Stefan Georgenot only as a man but also as a poet.

George's followers, ranging all the way from the perceptive Friedrich Gun.. They considered him the ancestor of modern journalism. But it seems far more just to see him as a link between Goethe and Nietzsche as Nietzsche himself saw Heine -a link between Faust and the twentieth century.

Goethe realized the limitations of romanticism and its questionable character even before romanticism had become the style of an age. The very figure of Faust which inspired romantic poets, philosophers, and composers, and was accepted by the German people as their own ideal prototype-this poetic but unscrupulous titan who, for all his noble sentiments, becomes involved in brutal deeds The function of Mephistopheles resembles that of Heine's sudden sarcasms: Thus Goethe"s Faust is closer to Ulysses than to the Odyssey.

It is one of the first and greatest works of modern literature. A German commel'ltator complains that "Methistophe.. Kommentar und Erlauterungen, 4th ed.

The commentary is scholarly and helpful. The other characters in Faust are of much smaller scope-and meant to be-even Gretchen.

Lieschen has orily a single, very short scene; so does Valentine. Drafts for both scenes were included in the Urfaust; so was the characterization of Wagner, earlier in the play, and the de..

What a contrast to the great lengths of Part Two in which it single notion is again and again spun out for pages-for example, Mephistopheles' invention of paper money and, also in the first act, the manner in which the women find fault with Helens apparition, while praising Paris to the skies, and the men do just the opposite.

Goethe, like Shakespeare and most great artists, was not always at his best. But in almost all of Part One and in the last act of the Second Part as well, his economy is as impressive as his wonderful array of char..

Another feature of the play that approximates perfection is the craftsmanship of the construction. We seem to be confronted with an "epic theatre" over a hundred years before Bert Brecht.

Even Part One appears loose l , Introduction 26 and episodic: There are choruses of many different kinds, some serious, some whimsical; and the variety of styles is extreme.

Moreover, the saucy quatrains of the. Oddly, the text becomes much less obscene. One gathers that the publisher. The exchange between Mephisto and the old witch, with whom he dances, was bowdlerized in the same way: But these are trifles.

Faust has Hed after killing Valentine; Gretchen is alone The play is not called "Margaret" but Faust; so Gretchen's agony is slcetched,inbrieHy with a fe: At the Well, City Wall, and Night have alhbut brought it to a c1: But where is Faust while Gretchen's misery passes endurance?

At the WalPllrgis Night; seeking forgetfulness, not quite succeeding. Even insofar as Faust is a representative character and not only an individual in a play, the contrast between Gretchenl's agony and Faust's Walpurgis Night bears the stamp of genius.

The Walpurgis Night's Dream is more probiematic. Clearly, he didn't; and the "Dream" Introduction helps to remind us of that. These two scenes contain some allusions which may stump the modem reader.

None of them is important, and the reader who ignores them does not miss much. Elend, in the initial stage direction, is the name of a.

Proldophantasmist means "Rump-ghostler,'" and the character so deSignated is a caricature of Friedrich Nicolai He also published some travel books.

The Prater is a famous park in Vienna. In the Intermezzo the reference to Mieding, in the second line, pays tribute to J.

Mieding of the Weimar theatre, on whose death, in , Goethe had written a long poem. The Xenien, like the Intermezzo, can be enjoyed without erudition: Two examples may show what is meant.

The first was written by Schiller: Do you desire to please the. Give us a picture of lust-and the devil beSide it.

The second was one of Goethes Xenien: When you blasphemed the gods of the Greeks, Apollo hurled you From Mount Parnassus; but you are assured of heaven.

After the Xenien have had their say, Hennings appears. August Adolf von Hennings had published a journal, entitled Genius of the Age, and had attacked Schiller in it.

In , he changed the title to Genius of the. Goethe evidently thought that Hennings had not been kissed by the muses and might as well have invoked witches.

If what he derided made sense only when applied to some of his contemporaries, then the Intermezzo might indeed be out of place here.

Vollstiindige Ausgabe letzter Hand. The- first 40 volumes had appearedtlllder Goethe s own editorship, beginning in The first attempt to stage nearly the whole of Part One came in , under the direction of Otto Devrient.

He was also the: But these figures give no adequate idea of! The relative unpopularity of Part Two is due to many factot: Goethe never gave it the ruthless.

You may say that in that way it was after all the prod.. Goethe was ahead of his time: Though at times he forced himself to. For the translator, who must dwell carefully on every line, Part Two contains enonnous lengths, and what lies between the first scene and the last act is not altogether tempting.

To let Goethe speak English is one thing; to transpose into English rus attempt to imitate Greek poetry in German is another. Those who wish to study Part Two but have no German should find the Victorian archaisms of existing English versions one of the lesser ob..

It is my hope that those who would like to enioy Goethe's Faust-as opposed to those who want to be able to say that they have read it, all of it-may find the present version readable from beginning to end, and as faithful as any.

Part One and the first scene of Part Two are oHeredwitbout omissions. So is the final act. Some readers may appreciate a sUmmary of the intervening scenes.

Obviously, any such synopsis is hound to be almost farcical: The following summary begins with the second scene of Act One of Part Two.

The court of the Emperor lines S The Emperor asks about his fool and is told that he collapsed,. The discussion turns to the serious shortage of money at the court.

Christians wish they weren't. That's how the well-trained mind 18 known to me. The Emperor, not interested in the dispute, is eager to get money, and Mephisto tells him that whatever lies Introduction 33 under the Emperor's land is his.

Mephistopheles is told to produce money; but meanwhile, everybody is looking forward to a carnival and masked ball. Everybody leaves, except Mephisto, who speaks the often quoted words: The way desert and fortune blend, The fools will never comprehend.

Large room, decked out for a masked ball lines This scene is as long as Part One from Faust's opening monologue to Mephistopheles' first speech, or from "The Neighbor's House" to the "Walpurgis Nighr' ; but it is not distinguished either by many striking lines or by any magnificent characterizations, and it contributes little to the action.

Faust and Mephistopheles perfQrm some magic. Pleasure garden lines The invention of paper money is completed, with notes announcing that they are worth a thousand croWDS, backed up by the security of the buried gold.

Gloomy gallery lines Faust iriforms Mephistothat the Emperor wants to see Helen and Paris, without delay.

Mephisto explains that the ancient pagans are not his business because they dwell in a hell of thea own; "but there, is away. He must touch the tripod with the key, the tripod will then follow him on the way back; and once he has that, he will be able to conjure up Helen and Paris.

Brightly illuminated halls lines A blonde, a brunet, a lady, and a page boy crowd around Mephistopheles to receive his advice, in turn.

In the first three cases, he relies on magic; but to the boy he says: Look for an older paramour. Hall of knights lines The court has assembled to see Helen and Paris, and Faust appears to conjure them up in the name of the Mothers.

When Helen appears, Mephisto is the first to comment: So that is she! The men are enraptured; the women find her head tOG small, her feet too plump-and don-t consider' her good enough for Paris.

Paris,however, embraces her and lifts hel'ofI the ground to carry her away. Faust, consumed with jealousy, resolves to stop PariS, rushes toward him, and touches him with the key.

There is an explosion, Faust falls to the ground, the spirits pf Paris and Helen evaporate, and Mephistopheles picks up -Faust, as the act ends in darmess and tumult.

High-vaulted, narrow Gothic room, once Fausfs den, unchanged lines' Mephisto emerges from behind a curtain and, as he looks back, one sees Faust lying on a bed, still unconscious.

A Famulus enters; he has taken Wagner's place, while Wagner has taken Faust's; but Wagner has left Faust's study untouched be..

Mephisto wants to see Wagner, but the Famulus hesitates to dishub him. Almost as soon as the Famulus leaves, a Baccalaureus enters-none other than the student whom Mephisto ad..

Introduction 35 You do not seem to know how rude you are. In German, this line is often quoted, as is the retort: When you're polite in German, you are lying.

At that point, Mephisto, whose chair has casters, rolls forward to the front of the stage and addresses the audi.. Up he,e, I fear, I'm quite unpopular; Will you g,ant me asylum, if he becomes too trying?

The Baccalaureus continues to denounce the old and suggests that a man pa. When the latter appeared in , Schopenhauer was just over thirty, and in any case the half-ba.

In a few yea,s the young man wUl have changed; There is no danger, he may turn out fine: Although the must behaves as if deranged, Eventually we get a wine.

To the younger spectators in the orchestra, who do not applaud: My words appear to leave you cold; You child,en need no reprimand: You see, the devil is quite oldG,ow old and you will understand.

Laboratory, in the medieval style, with elaborate 36 Introduction and clumsy machinery for fantastic purposes lines Wagner is at work and informs Mephi..

And whatpair in passion H: If animals still like that kind of prank, The human being with his gifts must win Henceforth a purer, nobler origin.

Soon Homunculus, the little artificial man, comes to life in his test tube, eager to be active. A side door is opened, Faust is seen on his bed, and Homunculus is asked to show what he can do.

Mephistopheles sees nothing, and Homunculus derides him because he comes from the north and lives In a sad mess of knights and popery; How could your eye, my friend, be freeP You are at home only in gloom.

They decide to leave Wagner behind, though he is afraid that he will never see HomuD,culus again. The scene ends as Mephisto says, ad spectatores: In the end, we are dependent Upon creatures we have made.

First we see "Pharsalian Fields," and Fausfs first words are: UWhere is sher Soon he leaves and the scene shifts to the Upper Peneios, where Mephisto, soon joined again by Faust, encounters sphinxes and sirens.

Then weare taken to the Lower Peneios where Faust engages in a long dialogue with Chiron. Back at the Upper Peneios, we even.. Socratic philosophers, arguing whether water or fire has played the decisive role in shaping the earth.

B elore the palace 01 Menelau8 at Sparta lines Helen appears, and speaks: Phorkyas appears, and a heated argument develops. Eventually the scene shifts to the 2.

Inner Courtyard lines ! Here Faust appears at long last and addresses Helen: Instead of the most festive greeting owed you" Instead of a respectful welcome, I Present in chains to you a servant who Betrayed his duty, cheating me of mine.

In Act Three, too, he speaks in rhymes, while the other characters still Hellenize, and he explaihs movingly how Helen's beauty so stunned him that he forgot to signal her arrival.

Helen forgives him, Faust offers her all he has, and soon she expresses her admiration for Lynceus' mode of speech-the way one word follows the other to caress it.

And she begins to complete Faust's sentences with rhymes. Soon both abandon the Greek mode and speak in rhymes, but Phorkyas enters to warn them that Menelaus is approaching, with his army.

Faust instructs his armies to repulse the attack and th. Arcadia lines After the chorus and Phorkyas have held the stage for a while, Helen, Faust, and their son Euphorion appear.

Introduction 89 Should I view it from a distance? No, I share their grief and pain. An ancient word, alas, applies also to me: That beauty and good fortune are not long united.

Persephonia, accept thou the boy and mel "She embraces Faust, her body vanishes, dress and veil alone remain in his arms.

Phorkyas, in the proscenium, raises herself to gigantic height, steps down, takes off mask and veil, and shows herself as Mephistopheles in order to of..

A cloud approaches, parts, and Faust emerges. After a fine soliloquy, 1. The boots stride on rapidly. Mephisto spices his remarks with quotations from and allusions to Ephesians 6: Faust explains his desire to win land from the sea: At that moment martial music is heard, and Mephisto explains that it will be easy to gratify Faust's wish: N ow every child likes knightly storie8.

The three men, Faust, and Mephistopheles descend, as the scene moves to 2. The Foothills lines 10,;10, After the three are dispatched, Mephisto enters.

In the end, Faust and Mephisto win the battle by magic. The end of this scene may be reproduced without omission because it is the part of the play that Goethe finished last.

Having been written after the end of Act Five, it leaves no doubt about Goethe's unchanged attitude toward the church. Unlike some of the romantics-and Richard Wagner fifty years later-Goethe never abandoned his hostile attitude.

The point would not need laboring if the conclusion of the play had not been mis- 41 Introduction understood at times.

What bitter pain I feel, as I nnd i9. Both God our Lord, and our dear father Pope you're mocking. And when the latter hears it,. He has not yet forgotten how at the jubilee, When you were crowned, you set the sinful wizard free.

Harming Christianity, it was from your high place That his accursed head was first redeemed by grace. Therefore, beat now your breast; of your sinful delight Give to the sanctuary a tiny little mite.

That wide strip of the Inountains, where your tent was erected, Where evil spirits joined by whom you were protected, Where to the Prince of Lies you listened willingly, Introduction 42 Give, piously instructed, to our sanctuary; The hills and the thick forest, as far as they extend, The.

Thus your repentance wills it, and thus you shall find grace. I am so frightened by my sin, I must submit: The desecrated region where all these sins were done Must be turned over now to serVe the Holy One.

In rnymihd's eye, the walls leap up like flames of fire, The sun's rays, when he rises, aheady hit the choir; The church now forms a cross and grows into the sky, The faithful are delighted, the nave grows long and high; And through the mighty portal, they stream in pious legions, As for the mst time now the bell peals through these regions; It sounds from the high tower, they seek God's altitude, Repentant comes the sinner to find his life renewed.

The day of consecration-oh, that it might come soonl- Introduction 43 Shall from your presence, sire, receive the highest boon. May such a glorious work proclaim my pious mind And praise God, our Lord, while I forgiveness find.

My mind is lifted aheady and feels free. As chancellor I now ask a mere formality. A formal document to give the church this treasure, Present when you are ready, and I shall sign with pleasure.

Then you give for the church, while it originates, All income of the land: For worthy preservation Requires much; so, too, a good administration.

For the construction, then, on such forsaken soil You give us some odd gold out of your bounteous spall.

Moreover, one will need-I cannot help but sayWood, lime, and slate, and things that come from far away. The people do the driving, as our priests request; The church will bless the man who drives at her behest.

The sin that I incurred is grievous, I confess; The fatal magic folk cause me severe distress. Forgive, my LordI You gave the ill-reputed man 44 Introduction The imperial beach; the church will answer with the ban, Unless you give the church, with a repentant.

The land is not yet there, it is the ocean's ground. Who has the right and patience, his time will come around. For us your solemn word shall keep its ancient power.

Thus I might sign away my empire in an hour. As much of the pre.. Not only are there. In the Prelude in the Theatre, one expects poetry ,only from the Poet-not from the Director and the Clownand the Prelude sets the tone for the whole drama.

Goethe does not say '''priest: O'ccasionally,Goethe employs unrhymed lines and pas.. Goethe also often employs -impure rhymes, in lyrical.

Part One and the portions of Part Two offered here are eminently -readable and offer no great difficultiesthough for anybody inclined toreHection there is surely a great deal to think about.

Edgar Allan Poe once remarked that a long poem is almost a contradiction in terms, and he explicitly denied that 6'there is, in extent, any advantage to counterbalance the loss of unity which attends it.

Of course, Faust did not simply t 10 Translations. No translation of ,a world-historic poem equals the original.

Those who sing FitzGerald's praises do it, in effect, by insisting that the original of Omar Kbayyam 'was no major work; and that FitzGerald's quatrains are really not translations at all.

When we tupl to poems with which Faust invites comparison, the case is clear. No translation of Dante's Commedia rivals the orig..

But they set a standard: Meter should be preserved as far as possible; and one has no right to add or subtract lines. Second-rate material may benefit from such generosity, but not major poems-not even when the translator himself is a good poet.

Schillers Gennan version of Macbeth ,does not compare with Schlegefs efIorts, precisely because Schiller, though a greater poet than Schlegel, was much freer and interpolated speeches and removed the Porter scene.

His version, intended for a performance on. Some English translators of Faust have seen nt to add a great deal of their own.

Anster's version, for example, has gone through over thirty editiolls, though he thought nothing of occasionally more than doubling the length of a speech.

If anybody can produce a collection of passages better than Goethe's, let him offer these creations as his OWDwith apologies to Goethe, if necessary.

Most attempts at improvements, however, would never deserve a reading in their own right. Shelley did not take such liberties when he translated the "Prologue in Heaven" from Faust; when he had some.

But his version is by no means as superior as we should have to expect if the usual talk about the tra. Rilke did a great deal of translating, much of it superb, but never took the liberties which most trans- 48 Introduction lators claim as their unalienable rights.

As often as not, English and American translators render Gennan verse that rhymes as all but prose, presumably because they feel that rhymes are too difficult, though they say that rhymes are not fashionable; but in English versions of Aeschylus and Sophocles rhymes are frequently imported though there are none in the original The poets' epigrams are flattened out more often than not, but where the poet has no epigram one suddenly encounters startling phrases that are almost Biblical.

At such points one wonders whether Paul, for eXam! And discussions that are based. Victorian translations of Faust and ZarathtJ. The King James Bible is not only an imposing work of English literature but also, on the whole, amazingly accurate.

Even so, its style, mood, and atmosphere are often antithetical to the original. The austerity and laconic simplicity of the Hebrew gives way to a richly ornamental medium, and agonized outcries are refurbished u to be read in churches.

As if Amos had wished -to be read in churches" or, for that matter, Mas living Iiterature. This, how- Introduction 49 ever, is only a half-truth; and an illustration from the King James Bible may show how its magil.

After selling Joseph into slavery, his. A complete change of style in a transla. Goethe's disregard for conventions, his originality, and the irregularity of forms in Faust do not.

Goethe neither made things easy for himself nor depreciated form. When he published Faust: A Fragment in , he held back the most powerful scene of the whole play, the Dungeon scene; and he refused to publish that until he had succeeded in transposing it into rhymes to modulate its effect.

In some respects, the translator's problem in the case of 50 Introduction Faust is the opposite of that suggested by our discussion of.

Often the original seems ornate, and one is tempted to strive for greater simplicity. Yet it would be a mistake to eliminate all references to yeaming, woe, bliss, rapture, and whatever else is felt deep in the breast, although such words may be used sparingly, and fewer of them will be found.

They provide Mephisto with a foil; and the retort is, of cOurse, doubly effective when it rhymes on Faust's words" To substantiate the claims of this introduction regarding Goethe's modernity, the translation has to be faithful: I have not always reproduced Goethe"s many feminine two-syllable rhymes because English is much poorer in such rhymes than German: Faithfulness, however, was always the primary consideration.

And this, too, precluded any attempt to assimilate Goethe to a contemporary poetic idiom: The reader will assume in any case that Goethe's poetry in the poetic passages surpasses all the eHorts of his translators: German words, all force and effect is lost immediately.

He laughed at an English versionaf Gretchen's ballad about the king of Thule that read in part: He called for his confessor, Left all to his.

He considered the rhyme an irisufficient excuse for the confessor: Goethe should not be confounded with Faust, whose characteristic impatience he outgrew early.

Unlike Faust, Goethe despised neither reason nor the present, and Mephisto's short monologue after the pact scene, before the Student appears, is worth recalling: The spirit which he has received ff'om fate.

Yet Faust is saved. Let Dante and millions of lesser minds consign Paolo and Francesca to hell; let them. Unlike Luther, Goethe did not require faith either: He himself called attention to the angels' chorus: Who ever striues with all his powet We are allowed to save.

But elsewhere, especially in Wilhelm Meister, Goethe distinguished sharply between the unbounded striving which Faust exempliBes-a ruthless romanticism-and another kind of striving which is quite compatible with rational seH-discipline and delight in the present: Awgabe letzter Hand, vol.

When Goethe disclaimed any central idea, he was surely ingenuous: But the fact that it is not an allegory and that there is no theology or philosophy behind it, waiting for a commentator, is not necessarily a defect.

Kafka's Castle has sometimes been called Kafka's "Faust. And the Cathedral scene in Kafka's Trial shows at length how a simple, two-page parable can lend itself to ever..

Even if this reading of Kafka is accepted, it does not follow, of course, that Goethe conbived ambiguity in the same way, though it is well to remember his remark about wrapping u a few mantle folds around the finished product that it may altogether remain an evident riddle'l' see section 3 above.

Assuredly, Goethe was very different from Kafka in a multitude of ways. But Kafka reminds us that ambiguity and the irreducibility of a literary work to one interpretation may be virtues rather than defects, com.

For that matter, Kafka's great model, the Book of Gene- Introduction 55 sis, might teach us the same thing: And Goethe, too, received decisive impressions from Old Testament narratives.

What makes the comparison with Kafka somewhat more appropriate than that with the Bible is Goethe"s whimsical humor and his taste for the absurd Goethe"s opposition to the resentful bourgeois morality that would like to monopolize the word "morality"' -and that comes close to having a monopoly on the term -immoral" Lieschen, in Part One; helps to make that clear; so does Goethe'stemark, in a eonversation: Goethe scholars may think of connecting this attitude with Goethets "biologism"'; others will be sure to disagree.

But an Introduction is clearly not the place for trying to give final answers to questions that have perplexed great minds for well over a century-indeed for thousands of years.

Suffice it here to call attention to these issues and to point out that the relevance of F auat to such concerns has much to do with its rank in world literature.

To suppose that Faust is of interest primarily to philosophers would be as wrong as the assumption that it is only a character play with a lot of wit and some nne poetry, distinguished by superlative craftsmanship and 56 Introduction hosts of epigrams.

If one begins to read for enjoyment, the play will lead one, willy-nillyt to think. My friend and colleague Victor Lange, chairman of the German Department at Princeton University, has kindly read the Introduction ill manuscript and given me the benefit of his comments.

Easter Sunday, W. Two long monologues; separated by Fausf's dialogue with Wagner. Easter choirs toward the end. First we encounter, "people of all kinds," then Faust and Wagner.

Mephisto appears and gives an account of himself. The pact scene which contains some very note.. Faust and Mephisto among Leipzig students.

Faust has only two lines: Faust is made younger by means of a magic potion. Faust sees Margaret for the first time.

Faust visits Margarefs room in her absence. At the beginning and end of the scene, however, we encounter Margaret alone. Mephisto tells Faust what happened to the jewels.

Mephisto meets Margaret and enjoys himself telling her neighbor, Martha, tall stories about her allegedly dead husband.

Mephisto persuades Faust to perjure himself. Perhaps Margarefs last lines are doubly charming because she has done most of the talking.

Faust has fled lest he ntin Margaret's life. His opening monologue differs from all the rest of Part One by being in heroic blank verse.

The ensuing dialogue with Mephisto brings out the char acter of both in bold relief. This Gretchen scene was already part of the. The scene itself is wholly lyrical-a song.

Mephisto appf3ars at the end of the scene. Lieschen represents a masterly character sketch of resenbnent. Here "thou" would be justifiable in English, but the verb forms would interfere with the extemporaneous simplicity and t1;1e artless personal form of her address-woman to woman.

Street in Front of Gretchen's Door. GretchenYs brother, probably originally suggested to Goethe by the figure of Laertes in Hamlet, comes to life as a vivid character in a single scene.

His death, and even more his parting words to Gretchen, are a major factor in unbalancing her mind.

The Evil Spirit says nothing that Gretchen might not say to herself, but no monologue could equal the dramatic power of the scene in its present form.

A Fragment in , he broke it off after this scene. As Gretchen's suffering reaches its climax, Mephisto keeps her fate from Faust and tries Contents and Comments 60 to distract him with what Faust aftel'Ward calls "insipid diversions.

A Series of quatrains, for the most part satirical. The sole prose scene, in the drama-left that way by the poet, presumably because he felt that a really stark contrast with the preceding was entirely called for.

A six-line interlude which echoes Macbeth. Faust would liberate Gretchen, whoOphelia-like--has' gone ma. This is the first scene of Part Two.

Contents and Comments 61 omitted here, the action of Act V can be understood apart from that. A wanderer visits an old couple and hears how Faust is gaining land from the sea; but the -old woman draws a terrify ing picture of his methods.

Faust, who is now-according to Goethe's conversations with Eckermann-a hundred years old, is still dissatisfied with what is present here and now..

He covets the old couplets small estate and authorizes Mephisto's men to evict them forCibly and to move them to another place.

It is the antithesis of Faust's attitude. Care, unable to prevail over Faust, blinds him-as the "man of God'l' in Genesis, who cannot prevail over Jacob, makes him lame.

Faust's last speech and death. Versuch ich wohl, euch mesmal festzuhalten? Fiihl ich mein Herz noch jenem Wahn geneigt?

Ihr drangt euch zut Nun gut, so mogt ihr waIteD: Should I attempt this time to hold you fast? Does this old dream still thrill a heart so wise?

Have, then, your way at last. As from the mist around me you arise; My breast is stirred and feels with youthful pain The magic breath that hovers round your train.

With you return pictures of joyous days, Shadows that I once loved again draw near; Like a primeval tale, half lost in haze, First love and friendship also reappear; Grief is renewed, laments retrace the maze Of Life's strange labyrinthian career, Recalling dear ones who, by fortune's treason Robbed of fair hours, passed before my season.

They will not hear me as I sing these songs, The parted souls to whom I sang the first; Gone is that first response, in vain one longs 66 Zueignung 20 Verklungen, achl der erste Widerklang.

My grief resounds to strangers, unknown throngs Applaud it, and my anxious heart would burst. And I am seized by long forgotten yeaming For that kingdom of spirits, still and grave; To flowing song I see my feelings turning, As from'aeolian harps, wave upon wave; A shudder grips me, tear on tear falls burning, Soft grows my heart, once so severe and brave; What I possess, seems far away to me, And what is gone becomes reality.

Besonders weil sie lebt und leben laSt. Die Pfosten sind, die Bretter aufgeschlagen, Und jedermann erwartet sich ein Fest. Sie sitzen schon; mit hohen Augenbrauen, Gelassen da und mochten gern erstaunen.

Zwar sind siean das Beste nieht gewohnt, Allein sie haben schrecklich viel gelesen. Wie machen wir's, daB alles frisch und neu Und mit Bedeutung auch geHillig sei?

You two, that often stood by me In former times of trouble, say: What are the chances for our play, If we perform in Germany?

To please crowds is what I desire most, For they not only live, but let live, too. The boards are up, and one sees post by post, And everyone expects a feast from you.

I see them sit there with wide open eyes, Relaxed and hoping for a great surprise. I kDow quite well how people are impressed, But I have never been in such a spot: While they are not accustomed to the best, They certainly have read a lot.

How go about it, so it will seem new, Significant, and pleasing to them, too? Of course, I like to see the crowded lanes When streams of people rush to our place And, with tremendous and recurrent pains, Press, eager, through the narrow gate of grace; When it is day, not even four, 70 55 Vorspiel Auf Dem Theater Mit Sto.

Oft, wennes erst durch Jahre durchgedrungen, Erscheint es in vollendeter Gestalt. Was glanzt, ist fiir den-Augenblick geboren, Das Echte bleibt der N achwelt unverlaren.

Den will sie doch und solI ibn haben. Die Gegenwart von einem braveD Knaben 1st, daeht ich, immer auch schon was.

Drum seid nur brav nnd zeigt euch mnsterhaft, LaBt Phantasie mit allen ihren ChoreD, Prelude In the Theatre 71 They Bght and push each other, coax and vex, And, as in famine time, for bread at baker's door, To get a ticket almost break their necks.

This wonder works upon such diJIerent men The poet only-friend, do it again! And years may pass before it has acquired Its perfect form and opens like a flower.

Glitter is coined to meet the momenfs rage; The genuine lives on from age to age. From age to agelWhat silly, fruitless chatl Posterityl If I would talk of that, Who would amuse the folks today?

That's what they want, give them their farel The presence of a decent. Gebt ihr ein StUck, so gebt es gleich in Stiickenl S lch..

Publikum wird es euch doch zerpIliicken. Der saubem Herren pfuscherei 1st, merk ich, schon bei euch Maxime.

Bedenktt ihr habet weiches Holz zu spalten. U nd seht nur hin, filr Weil ihr schreibtl Wenn diesen Langeweile treibt, Kommt jener satt 'Vom iibertischten Mahle, Und, was das allerschlimmste bleibt, Gar mancher kommt vom Lesen der Joumale.

Man eilt zerstreut zu uns, wie zu den Maskenfesten, p,. Above all, let us have a lot of actionl They want a show, that gives them satisfaction.

The more you can enact before their eyes, The greater is your popular acclaim; And if the crowd can gape in duinb surprise, You gain a celebrated name.

He that gives much, gives something to all classes, And everybody will go home contented. You have a piece, give it in piecesthenl Write a ragout, you have a pen; Ifs easy to inVent, and easy tonnroll.

What good is it, if you construct awholeP The public takes it all apart again. You do not feel how bad it is to please the rabble, How artists spurn such craft and cheap applause.

The manner of the hacks that dabble Has furnished you, I see, with laws. I am not hurt by your invective: A man who wants to be effective Must first make sure his tools are good.

You are like one who would split moldy wood: Do not forget for whom you writet They come when they are bored at night, Or gorged on roasts and relish, spice and capers, And-this is the most wretched plightSome come right after having read the papers.

Was traumet ihr auf eurer Dichterhohe? Was macht ein voIles Haus euch froh? Beseht die Gonner in der Nahel Halb sind sie kalt, halb sind sie roh.

Waldoure, a wolf's head erased or. Waldron and Waldrond, Devonsh. Waldron of Clent, Stourbridge, Worcs. Wakeman or, of Chaderleigh, Worcs. Wakering, Essex, on a mural coronet or, a pelican of the same vulning herself dragon's head vert, crowned with an Eastern coronet of the first, cf.

Waldy, out of a mural coronet ppr. In omnes nut-tree ppr. A bird in the hand is worth two in the hush. Waltham, a peacock's head az. Walton of nifton, Glouc, a griffin's head erased arg.

Ward, Viscount Bangor, see Bangor. Ward, Lucas-, of Guilsborough. Give the thanks that are due. Ward, of Great Ilford, Essex, Warw. Walton, late General William Lovelace, between two wings, each charged with a fire-ball, a griffin's head erased ppr.

Walton of Chaklack Hall, Durh. Walton of Lacock, Wilts, and of Walton, Lanes, a wild man wreathed about the loins ppr. A buck's head ppr.

Astra, castra, numen, lumen. Je voil droyt avoyre. Andrew, trefoil slipped or, Warburton, Ireland, a mermaid with her Walwyn, a pheasant ppr.

S wreathed about the temples and waist with oak - leaves, over the dexter shoulder a chain in bend sinister, supporting with the dexter hand an axe head downwards, and holding in the sinister hand an oak sapling eradicated and sprouting, all ppr.

Walton, a wild man striding forward ppr. Walton, on a chapeau arg. Canon, the Close, Winchester, same crest and motto.

Warburton, Egerton-, Piers, of Warburton, Chesh. Ward, a heraldic antelope sejant. Ward, Berks, and Birmingham, Warw. Ward, Arthur John Hanslip. Colonel 1st Suffolk and Harwich R.

Aut nunquam testes a cross crosslet fitchee. Warde, Walter Eldred, same crest and griffin's head erased. Ware, a bear passant arg. Frickley Hall, Doncaster, issuant from Place, Surrey, a martlet sa.

Usque ad mortem fidus. Warde of Broke, Norf. Bridgman Lanes, a wolf's head couped at the an eagle displayed erm. WardeU or Wardle, a lion's gamb holding Waring of Waringstown, co.

Nee ri nee a spear ppr. Antrim, an eagle Ward-Boughton-Leigh, Rev. Theodosius, close regardant ppr.

Mox sese altollit bend. Oswald Pryor, in auras. Ward-Boughton-Leigh, John Hugh, 67, Warden, a peacock's feather and two charged on either wing with an annu- aut Albert Hall Mansions, S.

Wanganui, New Zealand, Judge of the dustria et spe. Kia kaha ki te mahi tika. Waringe, Ireland, a rose or, barbed vert. Warley, a tree ppr.

Staffs, and of Oakland, Wolverhampton, Familias firmat pietas. Warley of London, out of a mural coroStaffs, ki front of a cubit arm ppr.

I grasping an arrow in bend sinister or, Wardlaw, Sir Henry, Bart. I hilt and pommel of the third. Wardall, a boar's head and neck or.

Warde of Hurst, Beds, a wolf's head unicorn's head erased arg. Warde of Clopton House, Warw. I mullet of six points of the last.

Superna Court, Maidstone, same crest and sequor. Andrew Bruce, same his dexter shoulder ppr. CarUsle, in front of a demi-lion az..

Warne, a horse-shoe wings ppr. Holland, 37, the Drive, Hove, Sussex, a horse-shoe reversed between two wings. Warnefor'd of Warneford Place, Wilts, a Warne, ' garb ppr.

Warner, Edward Hanley, Leics. Nou nobis tantum erm. LeodeJuda oak - tree ppr. Warner, Ireland, a badger passant sa.

Ex sudore Warner of Strowd, Midds. Mox virtute se tollit ad t,.. Deo adjuvante non ti7nendum. Be just and fear not.

I I of London, Norf. Warner, Yorks, a Saracen's head affrontee ppr. Warner j Warren, Middx. En avant si je puis.

Warren London, a talbot ppr. Warner, ; Patrick, of Ardeer, Ayrsh. Warr, a cross fleury fitohed gu. Warrand, out of a ducal coronet demi-lion erm.

Warre of Chipley, Somers. Warre, Bart, extinct , of Hestercombe, Somers. Warren, Baron de Tabley, see De Tabley. Warren, on a chapeau gu.

Samuel Percival, of Balaz. Warren, a coney sejant in a fern-bush. Warren of Hedbury, Devonsh, Warren of London, out of a ducal cororampant chequy or and az.

Warren, Sir Augustus Riversdale, Bart. Cork, a Uon sa. Fort una rampant holding a crozier ppr. Albans, Herts, a lion's gamb erased arg. Warren of Aldenham, Herts, out of a Warren, out of a crescent arg.

Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit tttile panded chequy or and az. Warren of Poynton, Chesh.. WAT Waterhouse, Ireland, an eagle's leg or, conjoined at the thigh to a wing sa.

Waskett of Pentlow Hall, Essex, a lion rampant gu. Cave et felix esto. Warter or Wartur, a fox sejant ppr. Warter of London and Essex i rampant sa.

Vi Indus non coactns. Warter-Tatham, Henry de Grey Warter: Wasse of Wickham, Bucks, a demi-lion rampant arg. Warton of Beverley, Yorks, on the stump Wastell, Northamp.

Vix ea nostra voco. Warwick, a leopard's face or. Warwick of Warwick, Cumb. Was8 of London, and Rotherby, Leics. Wase of Storrington, Susses, a dcmiing in the beak an escallop or, a lion rampant arg.

Warters, Ireland, a lion rampant arg. Wartnaby, a lion's head erased or. Non dormiat qui custodit. Incorrupta fides nndaque Veritas.

Wason, Eugene, Esquire, M. Per ardua ad alta. Waterlow, a demi-lion gardant az. Cork, on a ducal coronet or, a snake nowed ppr.

Waters of Sarnau, Carmarthen, a demi- Honor pietas. Waters, a demi-talbot arg.. Waters of Newcastle, co. Limerick, Ire land, a demi-heraldic tiger per pale indented arg.

Waterton, a goat's head erased or, col- lared gu. Better kinde frembd than frembd kyen. Washborne, a hand holding a dagger ppr. Washbourn, Henry John, Waterford i A dragon's head erased az.

Down, Bristol, a dexter cubit arm erect vested sa. Veritas Watkin, Sir Alfred Mellor. Chester, a cock's crest. Watson, Thomas Wright, Esquire, Lubenham.

Market Harborough, a griffin's head erased arg. Esto quod esse videris. Watson, Lieutenant-General George Vincent, a griffin's head erased ppr.

Watkins of Badby House, Northants, a head erased gu. In portu griffin's qnies. Watmough or Watmoughe, a ferret passant sa.

Sic iiitr ad astra nee aspera ferrent. Watkins of Pennojrre, Brecknock, a dragon's head erased vert, holding in the mouth a dexter hand couped at the wrist gu.

Pen aur y chalon wir cj. Sir John, Shermanbury of Conington, Cambs, a griffin's head erased sa. Watney, Daniel, 2, Endsleigh Street, W. Watney, 1 Watney, Vernon James, industria.

Henry James, Canwick same crest and motto. Watson, Sir Arthur Townley, Bart. William Watson of Wath Cottage. Yorks, issuant from issuing from a cloud, all ppr.

A Deo a sun rising in splendour ppr. Inspiratur Watson of Muirhouse, co. Fjyddlawn griffin's head erased arg. Watkins, a cubit arm erect, the hand Watson, late John, Esquire, of Whitney grasping a tilting-spear in bend sinister Terrace, Bowdon, Chesh.

II a griffin's head erased az. Esto quod Watkinson, an hourglass winged ppr. II Watkinson, an eagle's head erased az. I grasping a sabre, all ppr.

Watson, the Scotland, a derai-gryphon holding in his dexter claw a dagger ppr. In hoc signo vinces. Watson of Low Hall, Shropsh.

Watson, Hants, on a chapeau gu. Watson of Hardendale, Westml. Watson of the hand an anchor az. Watson Watson of Turin, Scotland, a lily of the Gosberkyrke, Lines, an otter passant ppr.

Watts, Wilts, of Cotlington, Somers. Watson a ship under sail ppr. Lahore Watson, an oak-slip ppr. Esto quod esse Watts, a griffin's head erased holding in Watson, William Livingstone, Esquire, videris.

Insperata sinister charged with a fess crminois between House, Bucks, an oak-tree ppr. Henrietta Street, Cavenneck with a fess embattled az. Va presto ma sano.

Mea Watt of Speke Hall, Lanes, a greyhound ostrich-feathers of five Non eget Mauri jarulis neque arcu. Watts, William Henry, J. Fide sed cui vide.

Watson, John William, Esquire, of I Watts of Hockwold, Norf. Gerrard's Cross, Bucks, a demi-hind Fortis in Fide et fiducia.

Watt-Gibson-, of Doldowlod, Radnorsh. Watur, a garb per pale or and arg. Watte, Kent and Somers. Watters, Andiew, of Belleville, Edinburgh, a talbot's head erased arg.

Wauch or Waugh, out of a ducal coronet a dexter hand holding a sword erect, 2 1 2. Edinburgh, Industria Scotland, a wheat-sheaf or.

Wayneman of Fringeford and Thame: Industria for decrit alter aureus. I Waynewright, a lion rampant arg. Tipperary, Ireland, a demi-eagle displayed gu.

Malo mori quam and issuant therefrom a reindeer's fn imus. Weare, Henry Oxenden, 6, Courtfield jadnri. An eagle displayed sa. Wauton, a trefoil slipped and voided sa.

Webb, Glouc, an eagle displayed sa. Webb of Weobley, Heref. Esquire, Tan-y-gareg, near 2 couped ppr. Tenez displayed issuing out of a ducal coronet merui tneum est.

Sir Samuel James, Bart. Way, Edward WiUis, L. S Way, an eagle '. Way, Lewis John, Spencer Grange, erased ppr. Great Yeldham, Essex, same crest.

Weaver, James, Esquire, cf Worcs. Sligo, Ireland, a mail holding in the hand ppr. Esto in the mouth a pear slipped ppr.

John age, near Bristol, same crest and motto. Webb, a demi-eagle displayed, holding in Webb of Castle Leckey, co. Londonderry, out of a ducal coronet or, a demi-Uon the beak a cross crosslet fitched.

Way of Kilree, co. Kilkenny, a dexter rampant az. In hoc signo vinccs. Otago, New Zealand, a pelican in her erased, ducally gorged.

Wayne of Quorndon House, Derbysh. Waynflete, a griffin's head erased vert. Quid Xulla palltscere culpa. Tipperary, same crest and motto.

Bryn Llewyn, Corwen, North Wales, same crest and motto. Hanmer, 25, Onslow i A ducal coronet Gardens, S. Aquila non 2 above.

An eagle Webb displayed sa. Webb of London, out of an Eastern coronet or. Webster, a weaver's shuttle in pale. Son de- — Webb, a broken spear in three pieces, the headpiece in pale and the others in saltier ppr.

Wedderburn, Bart, attainted , of Blackness, Linlithgowsh. Aquila non captat muxcas. Vincit displayed, all or.

Glyn Dderwen, near Swansea, same quarterly vert and or. Carpe swan's beaked Wedderburn, Ogiivy-, land: Aquila non captat i Same — Webber, Scotland, a hawk jessed and crest.

Webber, William Downes, Esquire, J. Sligo, Ireland, a wolf's head couped per pale arg. Helen's, a dragon's head erased. Webber, Incledon-, Duncan Harold: Webster of Chester, a dragon's head erased quarterly per fesse indented or Weedon, Bucks, Dorset, and Lanes, a hedgehog sa.

Cari Deo nihilo carent. Webber-Incledon, Laurence Charles, Esgij. Webber, a demi-lion gardant or, holding A Webster, Scotland, the suu rising from the sea ppr.

Weddall of Stebenheath, Middx. George on the same. Weddel or Weddell, a battle-axe in pale ppr. Hampton Lodge, nihilo carent.

Weeks, a dexter hand holding a scimitar ppr. Webber of Badialton WeddeH, a hawk hooded and Court, Weever of Kingston and Prestine, Surrey, an antelope trippant erm.

Webbes, a hand couped at the elbow Wedderbourne or Wedderburn, an eagle's head erased ppr. Edward John, Wedderburn, Rev.

On the dexter side a stag lodged in 2 A demi-lion arg. On the sinister side an head an Eastern crown or, the dexter 2 eagle's head erased ppr.

Aqiiila non capiat muscas. Wegge, a hand from the wrist in a gauntlet. Vols, retired , of Belmont, Heref. Wegg or Wegge A: Blundel , Lanes, a squirrel sejant gu.

Grantham, same crest and motto. Weir of Dublin, a demi-horse in armour Nihil ppr. Campbell, 51, Albany Street, sa. Giles, Malvern Link, Worcs.

Weir of Kildonan, a demi-horse arg. Walter Hugh Earle, St. George's Lodge, Byde, same crest and motto. Gosberton i A man's head in profile couped at the shoulders ppr.

Weldon of Swanscombe, Kent, the bust of Queen Elizabeth ppr. Weldon, Sir Anthony Arthur, Bart. Kildare, and Kilmorony, Queen's Co. Welch or Welsh, a demi-wolf rampant Weldon, a demi-lion rampant arg.

Weldon of Sbottisbrook, Berks, a demi I lion rampant arg. I bezantee, gorged with a collar gobony Bienfait.

I a ring or. Gwell angeu na chyywilydd. Weiss, Henry, Esquire, J. Welborne of Burport, Dorset, a hand Weld, see Forester.

Nil sine Ijowed issuing from flames ppr. Welford or Welsford, Heref. Wellan, a demi-lion holding in the dexter paw an estoile, the sinister resting on the wreath.

Weller, a demi-lion rampant holding in the dexter paw an estoile. Weller, a laurel-branch fructed ppr. Welles, De, an ostrich's head and wings arg.

Welles of Saltash, Cornw. Welles, Cambs, a unicorn's head erased az. Manor, Bridport, a wyvern sa. Welby, Baron Welby , same: Welles of Buckstead, Sussex, a talbot passant arg.

I in armour 2 A cubit S I'rr iijnem per gladium. I bezantee, gorged with a coUar and chain reflexed over the back or, the wings expanded erm.

Wellesley, see Wellington, Duke of. Wellesley, see Cowley, Earl of. Wellesley, Marquess of Wellesley ex i Out of a ducal coronet or, tinct a demi-Uon gu.

George, with the motto over in Hindostan: Weld Weld, wyvern displayed vert. WEL neath the Mysore Standard, all ppr. WEN on the shoulder with five escallops saltireways or, holding between the claws a bezant, and resting the dexter paw on a mascle fessewise of the second.

Wenlock, Baron Lawley , of Wenlock, Shropsh. Porro unum est necessarium. Wellington, Duke of WeUesley , Stratfieldsaye, near Winchfield, Hants, out of a ducal coronet or, a demi-lion rampant gu.

Welsh, on the branch of a tree an eagle vert. Welsh of Sheldesley, Worcs. Welsh, Scotland, a naked dexter arm grasping an Oriental scimitar richly mounted, all ppr.

Welsh truncheon of a tilting-spear or. Je veux de bonne guerre. I 5 Welstead, out of a mural coronet or, a dexter hand ppr.

Welstead or Welsted, a hind trippant arg. Wentworth, see Fitzwilliam, Earl. Wentworth, Watson-, Marquess of Rock- Cork, a hind trippant arg.

Men En Dieu c. Ralph Gordon Noel Milbanke, D. Wells of Portlemouth, Devonsh. Charteris-Douglas , Neidpath Castle, Peeblessh. Wells, Edward, Esquire, J.

Wemyss of Balfarge, a demi-swan with wings expanded ppr. Virtus dum patitur vincit. En Dieu est tout. Wentworth, Vernon-, Thomas Frederick Charles: Wells of Holm House, Hunts, a demi- ostrich with wings displayed arg.

Wells, Sir Arthur Spencer, Bart. Wendesley or Wensley of Wendesley, Derbysh. Wendey, Cambs, a lion's head erased az. Wentworth, out of a ducal coronet or, a plume Wentworth,!

Jlolesev, the two ears of an ass sa. Sheilds, Esquire, of Delahay Street, Jour de ma vie. Nee Western, temere, nee timide. Fermanagh, Ireland, same crest, Werden, Chesh.

Down, Ireland, Werdman of Charleton, Berks, a bear's out of a ducal coronet a griffin's head head erased arg. Joiir de ma vie.

West of Fortwilliam, co. Nee temere, nee cf. Edward Were, ing in the dexter claw a sword arg. Werburgh's Vicarage, Derby, a West of London, on a coronet composed demi-lion rampant ppr.

West, Cornwallis-, William Cornwallis, same crest and motto. Ruthin Castle, Ruthin, Denbighsh. Kennet, Cotlands, Sidmouth head az.

Jour same crest and motto. Werge of Hexgrave Park, Notts, a demi lion rampant or, holding in the de. A'p langued and cared or. Were of Sylverton, an eagle's head erm.

I Westlemore, a tent arg. Extremos pied,, it rediisse. Galway, a cockatrice with wings elevated and the tail nowed vert, combed and wattled gu. Nee volenti, nee volanti.

Westby of Thoruhill, Ireland, a martlet sa. Dublin, and of Weston of Rugeley, Staffs, an eagle rising per fess erm.

Kilballyowen and Rosroe, co. Clare, a first with a fess dancettee sa. Ntc volenti, nee volanti. I West of Cotton End, Northamp. S upon a mount vert, an eagle's bead beaked and eared of the first, charged Westcombe, Bart, extinct , out of a mural the neck a ribbon erased or, around coronet a griffin's head, both or.

Feswith a fleur-de-lis for difference. Fermanagh, of Westcote, a Moor's head couped ppr. Wicklow, late of Loughlinstowa. Kil- Westcott, two hands issuing from clouds CO.

Dublin, late of i Weston, a camel sa. Berlis, a cubit arm erect, vested and Weston, Henry Macgregor. William Alexander Wesfenra, see Rossmore, Baron.

Westenra, Ireland, a lion rampant arg. Weston, Earl of Portland extinct , an eagle rising regardant sa. Weston of Sutton, Lines, a Saracen's head affrontee, wreathed about the temples or and vert.

Westropp, Ireland, an eagle's head sa. Westropp, Yorks and Ireland, an eagle's I gorged with a ducal coronet per pale of the last. Limerick, same crest and motto.

Westropp, Ralph Hugh, Springfort, co. Liinerick, a falcon's head erm. Jt me tournt vers Voccident. L, of Luneburg, Sandymount, Dublin, same crest.

Je me tourne vers Voccident. Westropp - Dawson 1 On clouds ppr.. Wharton, a bull's head erased per pale arg. Canterbury, New Weykes, a greyhound's head erased or, gorged with a bar-gemelle gu.

Weyland, a dolphin naiant az. Weyland of Woodrising Hall, Norf. Weymouth, a dexter arm in armour em- Wharton, William Henry Anthony, of bowed, cuffed paly of sis arg.

John Lloyd, Dryburn, Durh. Wey, a mailed ami embowed, the hand: Spe dives re pauper. Tourne Whalley, a whale's head erased and erect cracking a nut or.

En ing in the mouth a battle-spear reversed Dieu sont nos esperances. Westropp of Attyflin Park, Ireland, out ppr. Whalley of Overton, Hunts, and Norton, label of three points or.

Whately, a stag's head ppr. Mirabile Whatley, a lion rampant or, holding in 2. George Cairncross, , Qui sis non unde. Queen's Road, Bayswater, same crest Whatton, Leics.

Wetherton, a lion's gamb erect and erased gu. WettenhaU of WettenhaU and Hankilow, cj. I I tween the hands ppr. William Cheslin, Ridge- martlet charged with a fleur-de-lis, holding in the beak an oak-leaf and acorn for Medhurst.

Wheler, a camel's head erased az. WHI stalked and leaved, also ppr. Wheeler of Stuncarter, Kilkenny, Ireland, on a ducal coronet or. Whieldon, Arthur Edward, Lillington, Leamington, same crest and motto.

Whight, out of a ducal coronet or, a Wheler of Colchester, Essex, and Lines, dragon's head vert. In solo Deo salus.

Whinfield, a horse's head couped gu. Glouc, Fretherne, Stonehouse, Whelpdale, a hand holding a hawk's lure front of an anchor erect sa.

Arthur, a martlet sa. Major - General Frederick Whetham, an eagle displayed sa. Wheeler of Tottenham, Middx. Wheeler, Granville Charles Hastings, Jehovah.

Wheeler of Leyrath, co. Whippy of Lee Place, Oxon. Whishaw, an fess sa. I Whistler, a harp or, stringed sa.

Wheelwright of Heathfield, Yorks, a demi-heraldic antelope gu. Wheelwright, Joseph, NeviU Park. Tunbridge Wella, a gryphon's head couped gu.

Whitaker of Lysson House, Heref. Whitaker of Besley Hall, Yorks, a horse Whetwell, a hand holding a sword ppr. Lanes, out of a ducal coronet Blackburn, a wyvern sejant with wings Lydbury, North Shropsh.

Whitaker of the Holme, Lanes, a cubit For faith and for fatherland. Whitaker, Thomas Stephen, Everthorpe or. Whitaker, William Henry, Whitbread of London, a fox's head conped gu.

Vincit qui dent from a riband tennce. White, out of a ducal coronet or, a bear's head arg. Whitchurch, a Virhis vitium fugere. Down, Ireland, a talbot's head erased or, collared:.

Cwella angau na cywillydd. WiUiams of Cowley Grove and the Lodge. Deus hac otia fecit. Sir Herbert Lloyd Watkin, Bart.

Williams-Wynn, Summeriields, Oxford, three arrows, one in pale and two in saltire or, barbed and flighted ppr.

Deo adjuvante, non vested arg. Ar Thiio y Gijd. Williamson, a lion's head ducally crowned New Cross Gate, London, dexter arm embowed ppr.

CeUa Villa, a holding S. Glouc, a demi-lion gardant sa. Williamson of Banniskirk, Caithness-sh. Williamson, a buck's head erased az.

Williamson of Peckham, Surrey, a buck's head couped sa. With equanimity With equanimity Let equity te the rule of our actions With fair play and diligence Proceed wOJi a steady pace Eternity.

A name He aspires by favour of the king 'to heaven Rayscn. Let what God wills be Act or achieve Mathew, Williams. Ageomnebonum Agere et pati Agere pro aliis Agincourt Agissez honnetement Agitatione paratus Agitatione purgatur Agile pro viribus Agnoscar eventu Do what will be for roer.

Act according Let It is purified by motion to your ability Russel, Russell. The Lamb of God is my salvation.. The Lamb of God my Saviour A lamb in peace, a lion in war!

A good conscience is A Home! Aides, Dieu Aide-toi Dieu! Laid by for others Alis et animo Alis nutrior Alia corona fidissimo Flying, he keeps his eye on the stars With wings and courage.

I am fed by birds Most faithful to the crown Cant. A,m at htgh th,ngs Aiming at high things Frankland.

I aim at high things The eagle soars high Another reward Marshall, Stott. The camp and Carefully and cautiously With more shrewdness than dispatch Cautiously and carefnlly Cautiously, not craftily Cautiously, but without fear Cautiously, but fearlessly Cautiously, but vigorously Cautious for the future The wary wolf dreads the pitfall Roscow.

Cave Cave, adsum Cave, Deus videt Cave et aude Cave lupum Cavendo Bcware and dare Beware of the wolf. It shall be given to him who strives for it..

C--ietvici Cert ior duni I havefought and conquered. Certior in coelo Adams. The stag at bay becomes a Sheridan. A stag, not a slave Goddard, Thorold.

What will be, will be To each his own He who endures overcomes Bourke. Chatfeild, Chatneld, Dyer, RusseU.

He who sows Chrisfs cross fame my light Be Christ my gain Coore. Christi pennatus sidera morte peto. Happily, Christ being my conductor Let us conquer with Christ as leader.

A sweet savour to Christ. Christ is my gain Christ is like the pelican Christ will provide To serve Christ is true liberty Let Christ be the rule of life Madden.

Dei memor, gratus amicis Dei providentia juvat The grace of God is grateful Mindful of God, grateful to friends God's providence assists Antrobus.

To rejoice in the Lord. K je pense De moiite alto D'en haut Denique ccelo fruar en mieulx I think fast by the truth better and better Mason.

From a lofty mountain From above Maude, Roxby. Denuo fortasse Deo ac bello May perchance become obscure By God and var. Pellew, Salo- Deo Deo adjuvante fortuna sequatur adjuvante, non timendum God helping me, good fortune willfollozv..

Deo Deo Deo Deo Deo adjuvante vincam Practise justice, trusting in God Roberts. I trust in Given to data God Udheraj.

God my guide, Christ my light Palles. Cod for guide, fortune for companion NicoU, Owen, Slaney. God for guide, in.

God my leader, my Pelly. God leading, nothing hurts Wheelton. Ifollow, God being my guide Crealock, Crealocke. By God and my siaord. By God and with labour Outhwaile.

For God and country Atkinson. God and country Faithful to Lamb, Montolieu. For God and my prince Stanhope.

For God and the king.. I stand by God and the king Atkinson. Faithful to God and the king Lackerstein. Deo Deo favente cresco favente et sedulitate favente progredior favente supero fidelis et regi I go on increasing by thefavour of God I go forward trusting in Cod Glory to God to Chadwick.

Deo, non fortuna Boycott, Morse, Morse-Bovcott. All thiugs nv Pellew. Let the reward be given Glory be to God to admire Ryland.

Worship God, save the king. Fear God, honour the king Watson. God defends me from my cnemiL-s Le Touzel.

Let God stand by us God assists us Godfeeds them Brown. Goold, Jenney, Keane, Le Hunt. Lj God bt with us. Jf God beuith u God tiath given Boleyn, Bolger, Burrow, Hyde.

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