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Also for sports at high altitudes e. In the High Middle Ages , harbour cranes were introduced to load and unload ships and assist with their construction — some were built into stone towers for extra strength and stability.
The earliest cranes were constructed from wood, but cast iron , iron and steel took over with the coming of the Industrial Revolution.
For many centuries, power was supplied by the physical exertion of men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be driven by the harnessed natural power.
The first 'mechanical' power was provided by steam engines , the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century, with many remaining in use well into the late 20th century.
Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms — each tailored to a specific use. Sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, used for constructing high buildings.
Mini-cranes are also used for constructing high buildings, in order to facilitate constructions by reaching tight spaces.
Finally, we can find larger floating cranes, generally used to build oil rigs and salvage sunken ships. Some lifting machines do not strictly fit the above definition of a crane, but are generally known as cranes, such as stacker cranes and loader cranes.
Cranes were so called from the resemblance to the long neck of the bird , cf. The crane for lifting heavy loads was invented by the Ancient Greeks in the late 6th century BC.
Since these holes point at the use of a lifting device, and since they are to be found either above the center of gravity of the block, or in pairs equidistant from a point over the center of gravity, they are regarded by archaeologists as the positive evidence required for the existence of the crane.
The introduction of the winch and pulley hoist soon lead to a widespread replacement of ramps as the main means of vertical motion.
For the next years, Greek building sites witnessed a sharp reduction in the weights handled, as the new lifting technique made the use of several smaller stones more practical than fewer larger ones.
In contrast to the archaic period with its tendency to ever-increasing block sizes, Greek temples of the classical age like the Parthenon invariably featured stone blocks weighing less than 15—20 metric tons.
Also, the practice of erecting large monolithic columns was practically abandoned in favour of using several column drums. Although the exact circumstances of the shift from the ramp to the crane technology remain unclear, it has been argued that the volatile social and political conditions of Greece were more suitable to the employment of small, professional construction teams than of large bodies of unskilled labour, making the crane more preferable to the Greek polis than the more labour-intensive ramp which had been the norm in the autocratic societies of Egypt or Assyria.
The first unequivocal literary evidence for the existence of the compound pulley system appears in the Mechanical Problems Mech. Around the same time, block sizes at Greek temples began to match their archaic predecessors again, indicating that the more sophisticated compound pulley must have found its way to Greek construction sites by then.
The heyday of the crane in ancient times came during the Roman Empire , when construction activity soared and buildings reached enormous dimensions.
The Romans adopted the Greek crane and developed it further. We are relatively well informed about their lifting techniques, thanks to rather lengthy accounts by the engineers Vitruvius De Architectura There are also two surviving reliefs of Roman treadwheel cranes , with the Haterii tombstone from the late first century AD being particularly detailed.
The simplest Roman crane, the trispastos , consisted of a single-beam jib, a winch , a rope , and a block containing three pulleys.
Having thus a mechanical advantage of 3: Heavier crane types featured five pulleys pentaspastos or, in case of the largest one, a set of three by five pulleys Polyspastos and came with two, three or four masts, depending on the maximum load.
This meant that, in comparison to the construction of the ancient Egyptian pyramids , where about 50 men were needed to move a 2. However, numerous extant Roman buildings which feature much heavier stone blocks than those handled by the polyspastos indicate that the overall lifting capability of the Romans went far beyond that of any single crane.
At the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek , for instance, the architrave blocks weigh up to 60 tons each, and one corner cornice block even over tons, all of them raised to a height of about 19 m.
It is assumed that Roman engineers lifted these extraordinary weights by two measures see picture below for comparable Renaissance technique: First, as suggested by Heron, a lifting tower was set up, whose four masts were arranged in the shape of a quadrangle with parallel sides, not unlike a siege tower , but with the column in the middle of the structure Mechanica 3.
The maximum lifting capability of a single capstan can be established by the number of lewis iron holes bored into the monolith.
In case of the Baalbek architrave blocks, which weigh between 55 and 60 tons, eight extant holes suggest an allowance of 7. During the High Middle Ages , the treadwheel crane was reintroduced on a large scale after the technology had fallen into disuse in western Europe with the demise of the Western Roman Empire.
Generally, vertical transport could be done more safely and inexpensively by cranes than by customary methods. Typical areas of application were harbors, mines, and, in particular, building sites where the treadwheel crane played a pivotal role in the construction of the lofty Gothic cathedrals.
Nevertheless, both archival and pictorial sources of the time suggest that newly introduced machines like treadwheels or wheelbarrows did not completely replace more labor-intensive methods like ladders , hods and handbarrows.
Rather, old and new machinery continued to coexist on medieval construction sites  and harbors. Apart from treadwheels, medieval depictions also show cranes to be powered manually by windlasses with radiating spokes , cranks and by the 15th century also by windlasses shaped like a ship's wheel.
To smooth out irregularities of impulse and get over 'dead-spots' in the lifting process flywheels are known to be in use as early as The exact process by which the treadwheel crane was reintroduced is not recorded,  although its return to construction sites has undoubtedly to be viewed in close connection with the simultaneous rise of Gothic architecture.
The reappearance of the treadwheel crane may have resulted from a technological development of the windlass from which the treadwheel structurally and mechanically evolved.
Alternatively, the medieval treadwheel may represent a deliberate reinvention of its Roman counterpart drawn from Vitruvius ' De architectura which was available in many monastic libraries.
Its reintroduction may have been inspired, as well, by the observation of the labor-saving qualities of the waterwheel with which early treadwheels shared many structural similarities.
The medieval treadwheel was a large wooden wheel turning around a central shaft with a treadway wide enough for two workers walking side by side.
While the earlier 'compass-arm' wheel had spokes directly driven into the central shaft, the more advanced 'clasp-arm' type featured arms arranged as chords to the wheel rim,  giving the possibility of using a thinner shaft and providing thus a greater mechanical advantage.
Contrary to a popularly held belief, cranes on medieval building sites were neither placed on the extremely lightweight scaffolding used at the time nor on the thin walls of the Gothic churches which were incapable of supporting the weight of both hoisting machine and load.
Rather, cranes were placed in the initial stages of construction on the ground, often within the building. When a new floor was completed, and massive tie beams of the roof connected the walls, the crane was dismantled and reassembled on the roof beams from where it was moved from bay to bay during construction of the vaults.
Less frequently, medieval illuminations also show cranes mounted on the outside of walls with the stand of the machine secured to putlogs.
In building construction, for example, it is assumed that the crane lifted the stone blocks either from the bottom directly into place,  or from a place opposite the centre of the wall from where it could deliver the blocks for two teams working at each end of the wall.
It is noteworthy that medieval cranes rarely featured ratchets or brakes to forestall the load from running backward. According to the "present state of knowledge" unknown in antiquity, stationary harbor cranes are considered a new development of the Middle Ages.
These cranes were placed docksides for the loading and unloading of cargo where they replaced or complemented older lifting methods like see-saws , winches and yards.
Two different types of harbor cranes can be identified with a varying geographical distribution: While gantry cranes which pivoted on a central vertical axle were commonly found at the Flemish and Dutch coastside, German sea and inland harbors typically featured tower cranes where the windlass and treadwheels were situated in a solid tower with only jib arm and roof rotating.
Unlike construction cranes where the work speed was determined by the relatively slow progress of the masons, harbor cranes usually featured double treadwheels to speed up loading.
Cranes were also used domestically during this period. The chimney or fireplace crane was used to swing pots and kettles over the fire and the height was adjusted by a trammel.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution the first modern cranes were installed at harbours for loading cargo.
In , the industrialist and businessman William Armstrong designed a hydraulic water powered crane.
In a scheme was set in motion to provide piped water from distant reservoirs to the households of Newcastle. Armstrong was involved in this scheme and he proposed to Newcastle Corporation that the excess water pressure in the lower part of town could be used to power one of his hydraulic cranes for the loading of coal onto barges at the Quayside.
He claimed that his invention would do the job faster and more cheaply than conventional cranes. The corporation agreed to his suggestion, and the experiment proved so successful that three more hydraulic cranes were installed on the Quayside.
The success of his hydraulic crane led Armstrong to establish the Elswick works at Newcastle , to produce his hydraulic machinery for cranes and bridges in His company soon received orders for hydraulic cranes from Edinburgh and Northern Railways and from Liverpool Docks , as well as for hydraulic machinery for dock gates in Grimsby.
The company expanded from a workforce of and an annual production of 45 cranes in , to almost 4, workers producing over cranes per year by the early s.
Armstrong spent the next few decades constantly improving his crane design — his most significant innovation was the hydraulic accumulator.
Where water pressure was not available on site for the use of hydraulic cranes, Armstrong often built high water towers to provide a supply of water at pressure.
However, when supplying cranes for use at New Holland on the Humber Estuary , he was unable to do this because the foundations consisted of sand.
He eventually produced the hydraulic accumulator, a cast-iron cylinder fitted with a plunger supporting a very heavy weight. The plunger would slowly be raised, drawing in water, until the downward force of the weight was sufficient to force the water below it into pipes at great pressure.
This invention allowed much larger quantities of water to be forced through pipes at a constant pressure, thus increasing the crane's load capacity considerably.
One of his cranes, commissioned by the Italian Navy in and in use until the mids, is still standing in Venice , where it is now in a state of disrepair.
There are three major considerations in the design of cranes. First, the crane must be able to lift the weight of the load; second, the crane must not topple; third, the crane must not rupture.
For stability, the sum of all moments about the base of the crane must be close to zero so that the crane does not overturn. These requirements, along with additional safety-related aspects of crane design, are established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers  in the volume ASME B Standards for cranes mounted on ships or offshore platforms are somewhat stricter because of the dynamic load on the crane due to vessel motion.
Additionally, the stability of the vessel or platform must be considered. For stationary pedestal or kingpost mounted cranes, the moment created by the boom, jib, and load is resisted by the pedestal base or kingpost.
Stress within the base must be less than the yield stress of the material or the crane will fail. There are four principal types of mobile cranes: A truck -mounted crane has two parts: These are mated together through a turntable, allowing the upper to swing from side to side.
These modern hydraulic truck cranes are usually single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane.
The upper is usually powered via hydraulics run through the turntable from the pump mounted on the lower.
In older model designs of hydraulic truck cranes, there were two engines. One in the lower pulled the crane down the road and ran a hydraulic pump for the outriggers and jacks.
The one in the upper ran the upper through a hydraulic pump of its own. Many older operators favor the two-engine system due to leaking seals in the turntable of aging newer design cranes.
Hiab invented the world's first hydraulic truck mounted crane in Generally, these cranes are able to travel on highways, eliminating the need for special equipment to transport the crane unless weight or other size constrictions are in place such as local laws.
If this is the case, most larger cranes are equipped with either special trailers to help spread the load over more axles or are able to disassemble to meet requirements.
An example is counterweights. Often a crane will be followed by another truck hauling the counterweights that are removed for travel.
In addition some cranes are able to remove the entire upper. However, this is usually only an issue in a large crane and mostly done with a conventional crane such as a Link-Belt HC When working on the job site, outriggers are extended horizontally from the chassis then vertically to level and stabilize the crane while stationary and hoisting.
Many truck cranes have slow-travelling capability a few miles per hour while suspending a load. Great care must be taken not to swing the load sideways from the direction of travel, as most anti-tipping stability then lies in the stiffness of the chassis suspension.
Most cranes of this type also have moving counterweights for stabilization beyond that provided by the outriggers.
Loads suspended directly aft are the most stable, since most of the weight of the crane acts as a counterweight.
Factory-calculated charts or electronic safeguards are used by crane operators to determine the maximum safe loads for stationary outriggered work as well as on-rubber loads and travelling speeds.
Truck cranes range in lifting capacity from about Although most only rotate about degrees, the more expensive truck mounted cranes can turn a full degrees.
A rough terrain crane has a boom mounted on an undercarriage atop four rubber tires that is designed for off-road pick-and-carry operations.
Outriggers are used to level and stabilize the crane for hoisting. These telescopic cranes are single-engine machines, with the same engine powering the undercarriage and the crane, similar to a crawler crane.
The engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather than in the upper, as with crawler crane. Most have 4 wheel drive and 4 wheel steering for traversing tighter and slicker terrain than a standard truck crane, with less site prep.
A crawler crane has its boom mounted on an undercarriage fitted with a set of crawler tracks that provide both stability and mobility. Crawler cranes range in lifting capacity from about 40 to 3, short tons The main advantage of a crawler crane is its ready mobility and use, since the crane is able to operate on sites with minimal improvement and stable on its tracks without outriggers.
Wide tracks spread the weight out over a great area and are far better than wheels at traversing soft ground without sinking in.
A crawler crane is also capable of traveling with a load. Its main disadvantage is its weight, making it difficult and expensive to transport.
Typically a large crawler must be disassembled at least into boom and cab and moved by trucks, rail cars or ships to its next location.
Floating cranes are used mainly in bridge building and port construction, but they are also used for occasional loading and unloading of especially heavy or awkward loads on and off ships.
Floating cranes have also been used to salvage sunken ships. Crane vessels are often used in offshore construction.
The largest revolving cranes can be found on SSCV Thialf , which has two cranes with a capacity of 7, tonnes 7, short tons ; 6, long tons each.
For 50 years, the largest such crane was "Herman the German" at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard, one of three constructed by Hitler's Germany and captured in the war.
The crane was sold to the Panama Canal in where it is now known as the "Titan. An all-terrain crane is a hybrid combining the roadability of a truck-mounted and on-site maneuverability of a rough-terrain crane.
It can both travel at speed on public roads and maneuver on rough terrain at the job site using all-wheel and crab steering.
A pick and carry crane is similar to a mobile crane in that is designed to travel on public roads; however, Pick and Carry cranes have no stabiliser legs or outriggers and are designed to lift the load and carry it to its destination, within a small radius, then be able to drive to the next job.
Pick and Carry cranes are popular in Australia where large distances are encountered between job sites. One popular manufacturer in Australia was Franna, who have since been bought by Terex, and now all Pick and Carry cranes are commonly referred to as "Frannas" even though they may be made by other manufacturers.
Nearly every medium and large sized crane company in Australia has at least one and many companies have fleets of these cranes. The capacity range is usually ten to twenty tonnes maximum lift, although this is much less at the tip of the boom.
Pick and Carry cranes have displaced the work usually completed by smaller truck cranes as the set-up time is much quicker.
Many steel fabrication yards also use Pick and Carry cranes as they can "walk" with fabricated steel sections and place these where required with relative ease.
A sidelifter crane is a road-going truck or semi-trailer , able to hoist and transport ISO standard containers. Container lift is done with parallel crane-like hoists, which can lift a container from the ground or from a railway vehicle.
A carry deck crane is a small 4 wheel crane with a degree rotating boom placed right in the centre and an operators cab located at one end under this boom.
The rear section houses the engine and the area above the wheels is a flat deck. Very much an American invention the Carry deck can hoist a load in a confined space and then load it on the deck space around the cab or engine and subsequently move to another site.
The Carry Deck principle is the American version of the pick and carry crane and both allow the load to be moved by the crane over short distances.
Telescopic handlers are like forklift trucks that have a telescoping extendable boom like a crane. Early telescopic handlers only lifted in one direction and did not rotate;  however, several of the manufacturers have designed telescopic handlers that rotate degrees through a turntable and these machines look almost identical to the Rough Terrain Crane.
These machines are often used to handle pallets of bricks and install frame trusses on many new building sites and they have eroded much of the work for small telescopic truck cranes.
Many of the world's armed forces have purchased telescopic handlers and some of these are the much more expensive fully rotating types.
Their off-road capability and their on site versatility to unload pallets using forks, or lift like a crane make them a valuable piece of machinery.Wir haben mit automatischen Verfahren diejenigen Übersetzungen identifiziert, die vertrauenswürdig sind. Beispiele, die Kranfahrzeug enthalten, ansehen 13 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Darüber hinaus haben wir begonnen, casino 5plusbet5 Technologie auf weitere Sprachen anzuwenden, um entsprechende Datenbanken mit Beispielsätzen aufzubauen. Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam.