Spielregeln go

spielregeln go

Go-Regeln sind die Spielregeln für das Brettspiel Go. Sie sind international nicht vereinheitlicht, und so gibt es eine historisch entstandene große Vielfalt an. Mai Wie es gespielt wird? Das verraten wir dir im folgenden Artikel. Hier sind die Go Spielregeln einfach erklärt – und ein paar Tipps, Tricks und. Spielanleitung/Spielregeln Go (Anleitung/Regel/Regeln), BrettspielNetz. Vacant points situated between both sides' living stones are shared equally. To enforce byo-yomi, a third person or a game clock is necessary. The winner receives the difference of both values as the score, the loser scores zero points. Je nach Bewertungsregel werden die durch Selbstmord entfernten Steine entweder zurück zum Steinvorrat gegeben oder getrennt als Gefangene des Gegners aufbewahrt, genauso wie beim Schlagen gegnerischer Steine. Es besteht kein Zugzwang. Diese Standard-Ko-Regel ist nur innerhalb eines einzelnen Kos relevant; das ist allerdings der mit Abstand häufigste Anwendungsfall für Regeln, die Stellungswiederholung einschränken. Diese Bewertung war bis ins Beispiel Schwarz hat soeben auf Schnittpunkt C4 gespielt. Verbotene Züge Züge, welche zur selben Spielstellung wie beim letzten Zug führen würden, sind nicht erlaubt. Sie werden sich nicht darauf einigen, wenn in einem Zyklus ein Spieler öfter passt als der andere Beispiel: Das macht die Definition der Freiheiten einfacher. Die Details werden mündlich überliefert, bzw. BSW login Username Password.

go spielregeln -

Tote Steine werden am Spielende vom Plan entfernt, wie geschlagene Steine. Neuer Kommentar Ihr Name. Zur optischen Orientierung, aber ohne Bedeutung für den Spielverlauf, sind einige Schnittpunkte durch etwas fettere Punkte markiert Hoshis. Anzahl der geschlagenen Steine des Gegners. Eine wiederholte Fortsetzung des Alternierenden Ziehens ist möglich. Bei der Feststellung über Status werden korrekte Status ermittelt: Es werden nur leere Felder gezählt. Hier setzen Spieler bei jedem Zug zwei Steine in einem bestimmten Abstand.

Spielregeln Go Video

Spielregeln für Go (wortreich - Untertitel möglich ) patrickaugustin.se Augen zu bauen kostet leider auch viel Zeit, daher spielt man eher so, dass man Augen vorbereitet, als dass deuce casino sie wirklich Age of Discovery Slot Machine - Play Online for Free Now vollendet. At the end of the game, prisoners are placed in the opponent's territory and players rearrange the board so that territories are easy to count, Beste Spielothek in Fuchsgraben finden a visual image resembling the game, which some players find aesthetically pleasing. While differences between sets of rules may Beste Spielothek in Achtermeer finden moderate strategic consequences on potsdamer platz casino poker, they do not change the character of the game. Typically, counting is done by having each player place the prisoners they have club casino san angel into the opponent's territory and rearranging the remaining territory into easy-to-count shapes. Eine Kette ist eine Gruppe von einem oder casino lugano Steinen einer Farbe, die über horizontale oder vertikale Linienabschnitte miteinander verbunden sind, deren Schnittpunkte alle nur mit Steinen dieser Farbe besetzt sind. When Black plays at athe capture of the marked white stones results in the black chain at the bottom right acquiring liberties. AGA rules call for a player to give the opponent a stone when passing, and for White to play last passing a third time if necessary. Ein Lost temple spielen im Japanischen: These moves would be illegal under the optional rule prohibiting suicide. Each of the differences is discussed in greater detail in a later section Beste Spielothek in Burghammer-Burgneudorf finden the article. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Je nach Bewertungsregel werden durch Schlagen entfernte Steine entweder zurück zum Steinvorrat gegeben oder werden getrennt als Gefangene aufbewahrt. Traditionelle Gebietsbewertung ist auch bekannt weltmeister 1974 kader japanische Bewertung und wird verwendet von japanischen Regeln, koreanischen Regeln und mündlichen Regeln, die ihnen ähnlich sind. Bei der Feststellung über Status werden korrekte Status ermittelt: Verbundene Ketten teilen sich ihre Freiheiten. Die Reihen club casino san angel horizontal, vertikal oder diagonal sein und Steine können geschlagen werden. Sobald beide Spieler in Serie gepasst ausgesetzt haben, endet die Partie und es kann mit dem Zählen der Punkte begonnen werden. Tut er's, so gibt sich die Figur 2. Mit den ersten Steinen, die aufs Brett gesetzt werden, versucht man eine möglichst drückglück casino erfahrungen Balance herzustellen - die Steine sollten weder zu eng beieinander noch zu weit auseinander gesetzt werden. Darüber hinaus gibt es Varianten, die Änderungen oder Ergänzungen in der Strategie oder in den Regeln des Spiels nach sich ziehen. Angriff und Verteidigung Nach der Eröffnungsphase entstehen oft Kämpfe. Alle Punkte werden addiert - der Spieler mit mehr Punkten gewinnt. Nicht nur die Brettgrösse kann das Spiel verändern — im Go spielregeln go es viele Varianten und mögliche Regeländerungen. Jeder Gefangene zählt einen Punkt in der Endabrechnung. Und hier geht es wieder zur Go-Seite auf BrettspielNetz. Ist sie kleiner, hat der Gegner gewonnen. Augen GameScale | Slotozilla einen einzelnen Schnittpunkt, aber auch mehrere Beste Spielothek in Peney finden Schnittpunkte beinhalten. Zum Zählen werden alle Steine aufs Brett gegeben: Steine und Ketten des Gegeners können geschlagen werden, indem alle ihre Freiheiten besetzt werden.

Spielregeln go -

Seki Seki ist eine in der Praxis seltene Situation, in der zwei Gruppen nicht leben, aber kein Spieler angreifen kann, um seine Steine zu retten! Wann endet die Partie? Es werden nur leere Felder gezählt. Liberties The horizontal and vertical spaces next to a stone is called a liberty. Als Bewertung bietet sich die Flächenbewertung an. A group of stones can also be said to have liberties.

But c is also connected to e , which is adjacent to a black stone. Therefore, c is neutral territory. On the other hand, h is adjacent only to black stones and is not connected to any other points.

Therefore, h is black territory. For the same reason, i and j are black territory, and k is white territory. It is because there is so much territory left to be claimed that skilled players would not end the game in the previous position.

The game might continue with White playing 1 in the next diagram. If the game ended in this new position, the marked intersections would become White's territory, since they would no longer be connected to an empty intersection adjacent to a black stone.

The game might end with the moves shown below. In the final position, the points marked a are black territory and the points marked b are white territory.

The point marked c is the only neutral territory left. In Japanese and Korean rules, the point in the lower right corner and the point marked a on the right side of the board would fall under the seki exception, in which they would be considered neutral territory.

In the final position, an intersection is said to belong to a player's area if either: Consider once again the final position shown in the last diagram of the section "Territory".

The following diagram illustrates the area of each player in that position. Points in a player's area are occupied by a stone of the corresponding color.

The lone neutral point does not belong to either player's area. A player's score is the number of intersections in their area in the final position.

For example, if a game ended as in the last diagram in the section "Territory", the score would be: Black 44, White The players' scores add to The scoring system described here is known as area scoring , and is the one used in the Chinese rules.

Different scoring systems exist. These determine the same winner in most instances. See the Scoring systems section below.

If one player has a higher score than the other, then that player wins. Otherwise, the game is drawn. The most prominent difference between rulesets is the scoring method.

There are two main scoring systems: A third system stone scoring is rarely used today but was used in the past and has historical and theoretical interest.

Care should be taken to distinguish between scoring systems and counting methods. Only two scoring systems are in wide use, but there are two ways of counting using "area" scoring.

In territory scoring including Japanese and Korean rules a player's score is determined by the number of empty locations that player has surrounded minus the number of stones their opponent has captured.

Furthermore, Japanese and Korean rules have special provisions in cases of seki , though this is not a necessary part of a territory scoring system.

See " Seki " below. Typically, counting is done by having each player place the prisoners they have taken into the opponent's territory and rearranging the remaining territory into easy-to-count shapes.

In area scoring including Chinese rules , a player's score is determined by the number of stones that player has on the board plus the empty area surrounded by that player's stones.

There are several common ways in which to count the score all these ways will always result in the same winner:. In stone scoring, a player's score is the number of stones that player has on the board.

Play typically continues until both players have nearly filled their territories, leaving only the two eyes necessary to prevent capture.

If the game ends with both players having played the same number of times, then the score will be identical in territory and area scoring.

AGA rules call for a player to give the opponent a stone when passing, and for White to play last passing a third time if necessary. This "passing stone" does not affect the player's final area, but as it is treated like a prisoner in the territory scoring system, the result using a territory system is consequently the same as it would be using an area scoring system.

The results for stone and area scoring are identical if both sides have the same number of groups. Otherwise the results will differ by two points for each extra group.

Some older rules used area scoring with a "group tax" of two points per group; this will give results identical to those with stone scoring.

Customarily, when players agree that there are no useful moves left most often by passing in succession , they attempt to agree which groups are alive and which are dead.

If disagreement arises, then under Chinese rules the players simply play on. However, under Japanese rules, the game is already considered to have ended.

The players attempt to ascertain which groups of stones would remain if both players played perfectly from that point on.

These groups are said to be alive. In addition, this play is done under rules in which kos are treated differently from ordinary play.

If the players reach an incorrect conclusion, then they both lose. Unlike most other rulesets, the Japanese rules contain lengthy definitions of when groups are considered alive and when they are dead.

In fact, these definitions do not cover every situation that may arise. Some difficult cases not entirely determined by the rules and existing precedent must be adjudicated by a go tribunal.

The need for the Japanese rules to address the definition of life and death follows from the fact that in the Japanese rules, scores are calculated by territory rather than by area.

The rules cannot simply require a player to play on in order to prove that an opponent's group is dead, since playing in their own territory to do this would reduce their score.

Therefore, the game is divided into a phase of ordinary play, and a phase of determination of life and death which according to the Japanese rules is not technically part of the game.

To allow players of different skills to compete fairly, handicaps and komi are used. These are considered a part of the game and, unlike in many other games, they do not distort the nature of the game.

Players at all levels employ handicaps to make the game more balanced. In an "even", or non-handicap game, Black's initial advantage of moving first can be offset by komi compensation points: The correct value of komi to properly compensate for Black's advantage is controversial, but common values are 5.

In a handicap game, komi is usually set to 0. A handicap game with a handicap of 1 starts like an even game, but White receives only 0.

Before the 20th century, there was no komi system. When the great Shusaku was once asked how an important game came out, he said simply, "I had Black", implying that victory was inevitable.

As more people became aware of the significance of Black having the first move, komi was introduced. When it was introduced in Japanese Professional games, it was 4.

However, Black still had a better chance to win, so komi was increased to 5. In , the Japanese Go Association again increased the komi value to 6.

Handicaps are given by allowing the weaker player to take Black and declaring White's first few moves as mandatory "pass" moves.

In practice, this means that Black's first move is to place a certain number of stones usually the number is equal to the difference in the players' ranks on the board before allowing White to play.

Traditionally, the hoshi "star points" — strategically important intersections marked with small dots—are used to place these handicap stones.

When Black is only one rank weaker also known as one stone weaker, due to the close relationship between ranks and the handicap system , Black is given the advantage of playing Black, perhaps without komi, but without any mandatory White passes.

For rank differences from two through nine stones, the appropriate number of handicap stones are used. Beyond nine stones, the difference in strength between the players is usually considered great enough that the game is more a lesson where White teaches Black than a competition.

Thus, nine stones is the nominal upper limit on handicap stones regardless of the difference in rank although higher numbers of stones, up to 41 stones in some cases, may be given if the teacher wants a greater challenge.

Go was already an ancient game before its rules were codified, and therefore, although the basic rules and strategy are universal, there are regional variations in some aspects of the rules.

These definitions are given only loosely, since a number of complications arise when attempts are made to formalize the notion of life and death.

A group of stones of one color is said to be alive by seki or in seki if it is not independently alive, yet cannot be captured by the opponent.

For example, in the diagram above, the black and white groups each have only one eye. Hence they are not independently alive. However, if either Black or White were to play at the circled point, the other side would then capture their group by playing in its eye.

In this case both the black and white groups are alive by seki. In the diagram above, the circled point is not surrounded by stones of a single color, and accordingly is not counted as territory for either side irrespective of ruleset.

In more complex cases, as here, [29]. According to Japanese and Korean rules, such a point is nonetheless treated as neutral territory for scoring purposes.

Generally, the Japanese and Korean rules only count a vacant point as territory for one color if it is surrounded by a group or groups of that color that are independently alive.

The major division in rules to prevent repetition is between the simple ko rule and the super ko rule: In both cases, the rule does not however prohibit passing.

The super ko rule is differentiated into situational super ko SSK, in which the "position" that cannot be recreated includes knowledge of whose turn it is and positional super ko PSK, which ignores whose turn it is.

Natural situational super ko NSSK is a variant in which what matters is not whose turn it is, but who created the position i. Situations other than ko which could lead to an endlessly repeating position are rare enough that many frequent players never encounter them; their treatment depends on what ruleset is being used.

The simple ko rule generally requires the inclusion of additional rules to handle other undesirable repetitions e. The first position below is an example of a triple ko , taken, with minor changes, from Ikeda Toshio's On the Rules of Go.

Without a superko rule, this position would lead to an endless cycle, and hence "no result", a draw, or some other outcome determined by the rules.

We now discuss the position using the superko rule. For simplicity, we assume that the last move placed a stone in a position unoccupied since the beginning of the game, and away from the ko.

Under positional and situational super ko, Black captures the white group. This is also the case with natural situational super ko if it is Black's turn.

White can get a seki by passing, but only at the cost of allowing Black unlimited moves away from the ko. If White insists on saving their group, the final position might look like the second diagram.

On the other hand, with the first move which should be a pass , White wins by two points in the third position using NSSK assuming area scoring.

Black's best response, in terms of maximizing their score, is a pass. Currently, most major rulesets forbid playing such that a play results in that player's own stones being removed from the board.

Some rulesets notably, New Zealand derived rules and Ing rules allow suicide of more than one stone. Suicide of more than one stone rarely occurs in real games, but in certain circumstances, a suicidal move may threaten the opponent's eye shape, yielding a ko threat.

The major rulesets differ in how handicap stones are placed on the board: Area scoring rules and territory scoring rules also differ in the compensation given for each handicap stone since each handicap stone would count under area scoring.

Komi compensation for going first also varies, ranging from several fixed values commonly 5. All board sizes have an odd number of lines to ensure that there is a center point, possibly to make mirror go a less attractive strategy.

Generally all rules apply to all board sizes, with the exception of handicaps and compensation whose placement and values vary according to board size.

Historically in China a scoring system was used that penalized the player who had the greatest number of unconnected live groups of stones.

On the basis that every group needs two eyes to be alive, and that the two eyes could not be filled in, two points were deducted from the score for each live group at the end of the game.

This was known as the "cutting penalty" in Chinese, and is sometimes referred to as the "group tax" in English.

In general, there are three closely related issues which have to be addressed by each variation of the rules.

First, how to ensure that the game comes to an end. Players must be able to settle unsettled situations rather than going around in circles.

And neither player should be able to drag the game out indefinitely either to avoid losing or to irritate the other player. This is also affected by the scoring method used since territory scoring penalizes extended play after the boundaries of the territories have been settled.

Second, how to decide which player won the game; and whether draws jigo should be allowed. Possible terms to include in the score are: Third, how to determine whether a group of stones is alive or dead at the end of the game, and whether protective plays are necessary; e.

If the players are unable to agree, some rules provide for arbitration using virtual attempts to capture the group.

Others allow play to resume until the group is captured or clearly immortal. There are many official rulesets for playing Go.

These vary in significant ways, such as the method used to count the final score, and in very small ways, such as whether the two kinds of "bent four in the corner" positions result in removal of the dead stones automatically at the end of the game or whether the position must be played out, and whether the players must start the game with a fixed number of stones or with an unbounded number.

These are rules used in Japan and, with some minor differences, in Korea. They are in wide use throughout the West, sometimes known as "territory" rules.

The scoring is based on territory and captured stones. At the end of the game, prisoners are placed in the opponent's territory and players rearrange the board so that territories are easy to count, leaving a visual image resembling the game, which some players find aesthetically pleasing.

There is no superko the triple ko leads to an undecided game. Suicide is always forbidden. Japanese rules count vacant points in a seki as neutral, even if they are entirely surrounded by stones of a single color.

The rules of the World Amateur Go Championship are based on the Japanese rules, with some differences. This is the other major set of rules in widespread use, also known as "area" rules.

At the end, one player usually Black fills in all of their captured territory, and the other White stones are removed from the board.

Prisoners do not count. So for example with a komidashi of 7. Komidashi is usually 7. In the Chinese rules, there is no penalty for playing within one's territory at the end of the game, for example to kill and remove dead enemy groups.

Thus passing to signal that one believes that there are no more useful moves may be conceived as simply being a convenient device to accelerate the end of the game — assuming one is not mistaken.

The result will always be the same as if the game had been played out entirely. The fact that disagreements can be resolved by playing on means that Chinese-style rules can be implemented easily without the need for the rules to define what is meant by "living" and "dead" groups.

The rules of the First World Mind Sports Games , held in Beijing in October , are based on the Chinese rules, but are simpler, and represent a compromise with the Japanese and Korean rules.

These rules use area scoring, and have a komi of 6. Black has one further point deducted in the event that White was the first player to pass in the game.

This last feature is a compromise with Japanese and Korean rules in that it is similar, in terms of its strategic consequences, to territory scoring.

Unlike the Chinese rules, this rule will generally impose a penalty for an additional move at the end of the game within one's territory.

In particular, the result of the game may differ by up to a point from what it would have been had both players played it out.

The game normally ends after two consecutive passes, but in the event of disagreement about the score, play resumes in the original order.

Once this resumption has occurred, then when two consecutive passes do eventually occur again, play stops and all stones left on the board are deemed alive.

Thus after a single disagreement, the players are required to play the game out entirely. By this point in the game, there is no longer any penalty for making "useless" plays within one's territory to kill dead enemy groups, since the one-point advantage for passing first has already been attributed to one player or the other by the first set of consecutive passes.

Suicide is forbidden in these rules. These are used by the American Go Association. Some special rules like giving the opponent a prisoner when passing are added, which make the area scoring and territory scoring equal.

The scoring is basically the same as area scoring, but is done with a special technique involving "Ing bowls". Both players must start with exactly stones; the Ing Foundation makes special bowls that allow players to count their stones easily.

Prisoners come back to the owner. After the game finishes, both players fill their empty territory with their stones. The one that gets rid of all of them is the winner.

Black pays White eight points komi by allowing four white stones in Black's territory to be placed at the beginning of the counting phase.

As Black wins ties it is 7. The ko rule makes a distinction between "fighting" and "disturbing" ko. Multi-stone suicide is allowed. This ruleset was invented and promoted by Ing Chang-ki.

In most cases the differences between the rulesets are negligible. The choice of ruleset rarely results in a difference in score of more than one point, and the strategy and tactics of the game are mostly unaffected by the ruleset used.

Differences come from passing moves if white and black didn't pass the same number of times and from seki scoring.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rules of go. For a general overview of the rules of go, see Go game.

During the last years no professional or amateur tournament has ever been stopped because of the differences of rules.

In practice, the differences will cause problems only in very rare situations, maybe once in 10, games.

New Zealand Go Society. Retrieved 22 June The number of stones is preferably of each color. For a play, this is given after all its removals.

Likewise, empty intersections are connected if they are adjacent or if there is a chain of adjacent empty intersections between them. Those empty points on the board which are entirely surrounded by live stones of a single color are considered the territory of the player of that color.

The Commentary to the rules further specifies: All live stones of a player's color left on the board together with any points of territory surrounded by a player constitute that player's area.

Any empty points left on the board at the end of the game which are not completely surrounded by either player's stones are known as neutral points , and are not counted toward either player's territory or area.

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In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 9 October , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

History Equipment Variants Four go houses List of games. Im Bild eine Ko-Stellung: Passen und Spielende Ein Spieler, der nicht ziehen will, darf jederzeit anstelle eines Zuges passen!

Wollen beide Spieler nicht mehr ziehen und passen direkt hintereinander , so endet das Spiel. Es beginnt die Abrechnung. Es gibt seltene Go-Stellungen, die sich nicht auszählen lassen!

Abrechnung Die Endabrechnung eines Spielers besteht aus 4 Teilen: Anzahl der umschlossenen Gebietsfelder siehe unten. Anzahl der geschlagenen Steine des Gegners.

Anzahl der gefangenen Steine siehe unten. Alle Anzahlen werden einfach addiert. Der Spieler mit mehr Punkten gewinnt. Durch den halben Komi-Punkt kann es nicht zu Unentschieden kommen.

Ein paar Dinge zur Endabrechnung müssen aber noch geklärt werden: Tote Steine Steine, die komplett von lebendigen gegnerischen Gruppen umzingelt sind und nicht mit eigenen lebendigen Gruppen verbunden werden können und keine 2 Augen bilden können, sind tot.

Tote Steine werden am Spielende vom Plan entfernt, wie geschlagene Steine. Grundsätzlich werden tote Gruppen auf Brettspielnetz.

Die Gesamtheit der möglichen toten Gruppen ist allerdings so hoch, dass die Erkennung in seltenen Fällen versagen kann.

Dann ist es den Spielern möglich, die automatische Erkennung von Hand zu korrigieren. Die Ausnahmefälle sind aber so selten, dass der Änfänger besser mit der automatischen Erkennung arbeitet.

Ein Gebiet wird für dich gezählt, wenn es nur an Steine deiner Farbe grenzt. Es werden nur leere Felder gezählt.

Felder, die mit eigenen Steinen besetzt sind, geben keine Punkte. Seki Seki ist eine in der Praxis seltene Situation, in der zwei Gruppen nicht leben, aber kein Spieler angreifen kann, um seine Steine zu retten!

Solche Gruppen verbleiben in der Endabrechnung als neutrales Gebiet. Wer immer den Angriff beginnt, setzt seine eigenen Steine auf Atari 1 Freiheit und verliert.

Daher verbleibt eine neutrale Zone, die Ketten beider Spieler bleiben stehen. Man sagt, sie "leben in Seki".

Die muss man aber nicht alle lesen, um das Spiel zu erlernen und man darf sich auch nicht abschrecken lassen.

Als kleiner Einstieg in die Tiefen des Spieles, die man am besten selber ausprobiert, ein paar wenige Tipps: Ketten sind wichtig, aber umschliessen nicht viel Raum, man versucht eher lose Steine zu setzen und bei Bedarf, wenn der Gegner angreift, zu verbinden.

Augen zu bauen kostet leider auch viel Zeit, daher spielt man eher so, dass man Augen vorbereitet, als dass man sie wirklich frühzeitig vollendet.

Augen und Leben II? Rand und Ecken des Spielplans wirken beengt, da scheint nicht viel Platz zu gewinnen zu sein. Tatsächlich bekommt man dort aber einer oder sogar zwei Fronten geschenkt, wodurch sich Gebiete leichter sichern lassen.

Augen und Leben III? Es gibt eine ausführliche Wikipedia-Go-Seite. Diese Regel als PDF. Und hier geht es wieder zur Go-Seite auf BrettspielNetz.

Die Steinbewertung ist sicher die einfachste und älteste Bewertungsfunktion. Die Flächenbewertung wurde eingeführt, um zu Ende des Spiels ein langweiliges Zusetzen der freien Schnittpunkte zu vermeiden.

Kommentar zu den offiziellen japanischen Regeln von , Fehler der Regeln der Amateur-Go-Weltmeisterschaft von ]. Die Steinbewertung ist auch als Traditionelle Chinesische Bewertung bekannt.

Diese Bewertung war bis ins Jahrhundert hinein die dominierende Brettbewertung in China und wurde mit dem Beginn der japanischen Invasion zurückgedrängt.

Ihr prinzipieller Vorteil ist: Es gibt keine Streitigkeiten über die Bewertung der freien Schnittpunkte. Offensichtlich ist somit die unmittelbare Ableitung der Punktzahl aus jener Stellung.

Die Punktzahl eines jeden Spielers ist die Anzahl seiner Steine auf dem Brett und der leeren Schnittpunkte, die nur von seinen Steinen umschlossen sind.

Flächenbewertung ist auch bekannt als Chinesische Bewertung und wird verwendet von chinesischen, US-amerikanischen, neuseeländischen, Ing-, vereinfachten Ing-Regeln.

Ein weiterer Vorteil ist die unmittelbare Ableitung der Punktzahl aus jener Stellung. Die Punktzahl eines jeden Spielers ist die Anzahl der leeren Schnittpunkte, die nur von seinen Steinen umschlossen sind, und der Gefangenen gegnerischer Farbe.

Gefangene sind die Steine, die während des Spieles mangels Freiheiten geschlagen, aufgrund der Übereinkunft über Entfernen entfernt oder beim Passen bezahlt wurden.

Gebietsbewertung mit Pass-Steinen wird verwendet von US-amerikanischen Regeln die alternativ auch Flächenbewertung zulassen und französischen Regeln und ist äquivalent zur Flächenbewertung, d.

Es gibt gleichfalls den Vorteil der unmittelbaren Ableitung der Punktzahl aus der Stellung am Ende des alternierenden Ziehens.

Gefangene sind die Steine, die während des Spiels mangels Freiheiten geschlagen oder aufgrund der Feststellung über Status entfernt wurden.

Traditionelle Gebietsbewertung ist auch bekannt als japanische Bewertung und wird verwendet von japanischen Regeln, koreanischen Regeln und mündlichen Regeln, die ihnen ähnlich sind.

Ein Nachteil der traditionellen Gebietsbewertung sind die für die Ermittlung der Punktzahl erforderlichen Zwischenschritte: Aus der Stellung am Ende des alternierenden Ziehens werden erst in einem mehrstufigen Prozess, welcher auf der Analyse strategisch perfekten hypothetischen alternierenden Ziehens beruht, die Statusaspekte abgeleitet, bevor aufgrund dieser die Punktzahl abgeleitet werden kann.

Es gibt andere Bewertungen wie zum Beispiel die Kontroll-Gebietsbewertung, die aber bisher in der praktischen Anwendung kaum eine Rolle spielen.

Jede Bewertung lässt verschiedene Auszählungen zu. Daraus resultiert die Verteilung der leeren Gitterpunkte nach dem Entfernen der gefangenen Steine.

Die Auszählung der Punktezahl eines Spielers hängt von der Bewertungsmethode ab. Der Gewinner ist der Spieler mit der höheren Punktezahl.

Ein Gleichstand im Japanischen: Jigo bei gleicher Punktzahl ist möglich. Die für einen Spieler wertenden Gitterpunkte werden mit dem Finger auf dem Brett abgezählt: Diese oder eine algorithmisch vergleichbare Methode ist die für Software wohl üblichste Art der Auszählung.

Allerdings ist diese Methode bei einem Spiel ohne Computerunterstützung langatmig und fehleranfällig. Die Halb-Zählung macht sich eine einfache Überlegung zu Nutze.

Bei einem 19x19 Goban sind es Gitterpunkte. Daher ist es ausreichend, die Punktezahl von nur einem Spieler zu ermitteln.

Ist sie kleiner, hat der Gegner gewonnen. Am Ende einer Partie gibt es einen neutralen Gitterpunkt. Die Anzahl der zählenden Gitterpunkte ist also Schwarz hat abgezählte Punkte.

Um eine Vergleichbarkeit mit der Punkt-für-Punkt-Zählung herzustellen und um ein mögliches Komi von der schwarzen Punktzahl abzuziehen, werden die Halbpunkte verdoppelt.

Wie nun die Punkte eines Spielers abgezählt werden, ist wiederum vom Regelwerk abhängig. Nach neuseeländischen Regeln wird Punkt-für-Punkt gezählt.

Nach chinesischen Regeln werden die Punkte von Schwarz gezählt. Dabei werden in einem ersten Schritt zunächst die leeren Gitterpunkte von Schwarz gezählt.

Die Anordnung der leeren Gitterpunkte kann daher geändert werden, bis ihre Anzahl ein Vielfaches von zehn ist. Die Zahl der jetzt leeren Gitterpunkte wird gemerkt im Beispiel sind das Schwarz hat 1 Auge.

Unter den Blinden ist der Einäugige König! Es geht aber noch besser: Hat man eine Kombination von 2 oder mehr Augen , so sind die zugehörigen Ketten nicht mehr schlagbar: Solche Konstellationen nennt man lebendig.

Sie sind wichtig, denn alle Steine, die mit lebendigen Gruppen verbunden sind, sind ihrerseits lebendig, können also nicht mehr geschlagen werden!

Augen und Leben sind zentrale Konzepte des Go-Spiels. Sie sind zwar keine Regel, aber eine grundlegende Folge der Regeln.

In der Praxis werden allerdings Augen oft nicht gebaut, da der fortgeschrittene Spieler erkennt, ob eine bestimmte Konstellation in 2 oder mehr Augen verwandelt werden kann.

Schwarz hat zwei Augen und lebt. Falsche Augen Manchmal gibt es Stellungen, die wie ein Auge aussehen, aber nicht wirklich welche sind, weil Steine aus ihnen herausgeschlagen werden können.

Daher hat Schwarz links unten nur 1 Auge und seine Gruppe lebt nicht, alle Steine sind tot! Wenn ein Spieler mit seinem Zug genau einen gegnerischen Stein schlägt, darf der andere Spieler diesen Stein nicht sofort im nächsten Zug zurückschlagen, auch wenn das nach den bisherigen Regeln möglich ist.

Im Bild eine Ko-Stellung: Passen und Spielende Ein Spieler, der nicht ziehen will, darf jederzeit anstelle eines Zuges passen! Wollen beide Spieler nicht mehr ziehen und passen direkt hintereinander , so endet das Spiel.

Es beginnt die Abrechnung. Es gibt seltene Go-Stellungen, die sich nicht auszählen lassen! Abrechnung Die Endabrechnung eines Spielers besteht aus 4 Teilen: Anzahl der umschlossenen Gebietsfelder siehe unten.

Anzahl der geschlagenen Steine des Gegners. Anzahl der gefangenen Steine siehe unten. Alle Anzahlen werden einfach addiert. Der Spieler mit mehr Punkten gewinnt.

Durch den halben Komi-Punkt kann es nicht zu Unentschieden kommen. For example, in the first two diagrams above, the points a and b are in ko.

The next two examples involve capture and immediate recapture, but the ko rule is not engaged, because either the first or second capture takes more than one stone.

In the first diagram below, White must prevent Black from playing at a , and does this with 1 in the second diagram. Black can capture the three stones in White 1's group by playing at b.

Black does this with Black 2 in the third diagram. White may recapture Black 2 by playing at a again, because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, has not occurred previously.

It differs from the position after White 1 by the absence of the two marked white stones. In the first diagram below, it is White's turn.

White must prevent Black from connecting the marked stones to the others by playing at a. The second diagram shows White's move.

White is threatening to kill the marked black stones by playing at b. In the third diagram, Black plays at b to prevent this, capturing White 1.

However, by playing at a again, White can capture Black 2's group. This is not barred by the ko rule because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, differs from the one after White 1 by the absence of the marked black stones.

This kind of capture is called a snapback. The next example is typical of real games. It shows how the ko rule can sometimes be circumvented by first playing elsewhere on the board.

The first diagram below shows the position after Black 1. White can capture the marked black stone by playing at a.

The second diagram shows the resulting position. Black cannot immediately recapture at b because of the ko rule. So Black instead plays 3 in the third diagram.

For reasons that will become clear, Black 3 is called a "ko threat". At this point, White could choose to connect at b , as shown in the first diagram below.

However, this would be strategically unsound, because Black 5 would guarantee that Black could eventually capture the white group altogether, no matter how White played.

Instead, White responds correctly to Black 3 with 4 in the first diagram below. Now, contrary to the situation after White 2, Black can legally play at b , because the resulting position, shown in the second diagram, has not occurred previously.

It differs from the position after Black 1 because of the presence of Black 3 and White 4 on the board.

Now White is prohibited from recapturing at a by the ko rule. White has no moves elsewhere on the board requiring an immediate reply from Black ko threats , so White plays the less urgent move 6, capturing the black stone at 3, which could not have evaded capture even if White had waited.

In the next diagram, Black connects at a before White has a chance to recapture. Both players pass and the game ends in this position.

The game ends when both players have passed consecutively. The final position the position later used to score the game is the position on the board at the time the players pass consecutively.

Since the position on the board at the time of the first two consecutive passes is the one used to score the game, Rule 9 can be said to require the players to "play the game out".

Under Rule 9, players must for example capture enemy stones even when it may be obvious to both players that they cannot evade capture. Otherwise the stones are not considered to have been captured.

Because Rule 9 differs significantly from the various systems for ending the game used in practice, a word must be said about them.

The precise means of achieving this varies widely by ruleset, and in some cases has strategic implications. These systems often use passing in a way that is incompatible with Rule 9.

For players, knowing the conventions surrounding the manner of ending the game in a particular ruleset can therefore have practical importance. Under Chinese rules, and more generally under any using the area scoring system, a player who played the game out as if Rule 9 were in effect would not be committing any strategic errors by doing so.

They would, however, likely be viewed as unsportsmanlike for prolonging the game unnecessarily. On the other hand, under a territory scoring system like that of the Japanese rules, playing the game out in this way would in most cases be a strategic mistake.

In the final position, an empty intersection is said to belong to a player's territory if all stones adjacent to it or to an empty intersection connected to it are of that player's color.

Unless the entire board is empty, the second condition — that there be at least one stone of the kind required — is always satisfied and can be ignored.

On the other hand, it may well happen that an empty intersection belongs to neither player's territory. In that case the point is said to be neutral territory.

Japanese and Korean rules count some points as neutral where the basic rules, like Chinese rules, would not. In order to understand the definition of territory, it is instructive to apply it first to a position of a kind that might arise before the end of a game.

Let us assume that a game has ended in the position below [27] even though it would not normally occur as a final position between skilled players.

The point a is adjacent to a black stone. Therefore, a does not belong to White's territory. However, a is connected to b by the path shown in the diagram, among others , which is adjacent to a white stone.

Therefore, a does not belong to Black's territory either. In conclusion, a is neutral territory. The point c is connected to d , which is adjacent to a white stone.

But c is also connected to e , which is adjacent to a black stone. Therefore, c is neutral territory.

On the other hand, h is adjacent only to black stones and is not connected to any other points. Therefore, h is black territory.

For the same reason, i and j are black territory, and k is white territory. It is because there is so much territory left to be claimed that skilled players would not end the game in the previous position.

The game might continue with White playing 1 in the next diagram. If the game ended in this new position, the marked intersections would become White's territory, since they would no longer be connected to an empty intersection adjacent to a black stone.

The game might end with the moves shown below. In the final position, the points marked a are black territory and the points marked b are white territory.

The point marked c is the only neutral territory left. In Japanese and Korean rules, the point in the lower right corner and the point marked a on the right side of the board would fall under the seki exception, in which they would be considered neutral territory.

In the final position, an intersection is said to belong to a player's area if either: Consider once again the final position shown in the last diagram of the section "Territory".

The following diagram illustrates the area of each player in that position. Points in a player's area are occupied by a stone of the corresponding color.

The lone neutral point does not belong to either player's area. A player's score is the number of intersections in their area in the final position.

For example, if a game ended as in the last diagram in the section "Territory", the score would be: Black 44, White The players' scores add to The scoring system described here is known as area scoring , and is the one used in the Chinese rules.

Different scoring systems exist. These determine the same winner in most instances. See the Scoring systems section below.

If one player has a higher score than the other, then that player wins. Otherwise, the game is drawn. The most prominent difference between rulesets is the scoring method.

There are two main scoring systems: A third system stone scoring is rarely used today but was used in the past and has historical and theoretical interest.

Care should be taken to distinguish between scoring systems and counting methods. Only two scoring systems are in wide use, but there are two ways of counting using "area" scoring.

In territory scoring including Japanese and Korean rules a player's score is determined by the number of empty locations that player has surrounded minus the number of stones their opponent has captured.

Furthermore, Japanese and Korean rules have special provisions in cases of seki , though this is not a necessary part of a territory scoring system.

See " Seki " below. Typically, counting is done by having each player place the prisoners they have taken into the opponent's territory and rearranging the remaining territory into easy-to-count shapes.

In area scoring including Chinese rules , a player's score is determined by the number of stones that player has on the board plus the empty area surrounded by that player's stones.

There are several common ways in which to count the score all these ways will always result in the same winner:.

In stone scoring, a player's score is the number of stones that player has on the board. Play typically continues until both players have nearly filled their territories, leaving only the two eyes necessary to prevent capture.

If the game ends with both players having played the same number of times, then the score will be identical in territory and area scoring.

AGA rules call for a player to give the opponent a stone when passing, and for White to play last passing a third time if necessary.

This "passing stone" does not affect the player's final area, but as it is treated like a prisoner in the territory scoring system, the result using a territory system is consequently the same as it would be using an area scoring system.

The results for stone and area scoring are identical if both sides have the same number of groups.

Otherwise the results will differ by two points for each extra group. Some older rules used area scoring with a "group tax" of two points per group; this will give results identical to those with stone scoring.

Customarily, when players agree that there are no useful moves left most often by passing in succession , they attempt to agree which groups are alive and which are dead.

If disagreement arises, then under Chinese rules the players simply play on. However, under Japanese rules, the game is already considered to have ended.

The players attempt to ascertain which groups of stones would remain if both players played perfectly from that point on.

These groups are said to be alive. In addition, this play is done under rules in which kos are treated differently from ordinary play.

If the players reach an incorrect conclusion, then they both lose. Unlike most other rulesets, the Japanese rules contain lengthy definitions of when groups are considered alive and when they are dead.

In fact, these definitions do not cover every situation that may arise. Some difficult cases not entirely determined by the rules and existing precedent must be adjudicated by a go tribunal.

The need for the Japanese rules to address the definition of life and death follows from the fact that in the Japanese rules, scores are calculated by territory rather than by area.

The rules cannot simply require a player to play on in order to prove that an opponent's group is dead, since playing in their own territory to do this would reduce their score.

Therefore, the game is divided into a phase of ordinary play, and a phase of determination of life and death which according to the Japanese rules is not technically part of the game.

To allow players of different skills to compete fairly, handicaps and komi are used. These are considered a part of the game and, unlike in many other games, they do not distort the nature of the game.

Players at all levels employ handicaps to make the game more balanced. In an "even", or non-handicap game, Black's initial advantage of moving first can be offset by komi compensation points: The correct value of komi to properly compensate for Black's advantage is controversial, but common values are 5.

In a handicap game, komi is usually set to 0. A handicap game with a handicap of 1 starts like an even game, but White receives only 0.

Before the 20th century, there was no komi system. When the great Shusaku was once asked how an important game came out, he said simply, "I had Black", implying that victory was inevitable.

As more people became aware of the significance of Black having the first move, komi was introduced. When it was introduced in Japanese Professional games, it was 4.

However, Black still had a better chance to win, so komi was increased to 5. In , the Japanese Go Association again increased the komi value to 6.

Handicaps are given by allowing the weaker player to take Black and declaring White's first few moves as mandatory "pass" moves. In practice, this means that Black's first move is to place a certain number of stones usually the number is equal to the difference in the players' ranks on the board before allowing White to play.

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