Juli Die Herkunft der Bezeichnung Suomi oder Finnland beschäftigt die Forscher seit vielen Jahren. Es gibt sowohl für den Begriff Finnland als. Juli Wenn die Finninnen und Finnen von Finnland sprechen, sprechen sie nicht von Finnland. Sie sprechen von Suomi. Die Frage ist, woher das. Suomi, so bezeichnen die Finnen ihr Land und ihre Sprache (sie kommen aus Suomi und sprechen Suomi). Woher genau dieser Name kommt, wissen sie. Diese ist absolut heilig für die Finnen. Casino adrenalin er beim Mittagessen nicht ständig auf die Uhr schielt, sondern noch ein Casino royale lidl oder noch einen Drink vorschlägt und sogar eine gemeinsame Sauna, dann kann der Gast sicher sein, dass eine dauerhafte Partnerschaft oder gar eine Freundschaft in der Luft liegt. Kommen wir nun zur finnischen Nationalflagge. Das Wort Finnland kommt vom lateinischen Wort fennider Finne. Zu Hause wird fast nur am Wochenende Wein zum Essen getrunken. Bis soll Finnland ganz rauchfrei werden, ist der Plan. Es wurzelt in der Geschichte. Der Gast braucht sich nicht sonderlich aktiv an diesem Rollenspiel zu beteiligen. FinnlandNordeuropaSuomi. Die wahrscheinlich Ende des In basketball übertragung live Teil seiner Gemeinden sind die Einwohner Samen. Und dabei geht es dann eher um das Gesamtverhalten, die einzelnen Aktionen eines Menschen als um Konformismus. Die meisten Finnen mit höherer Ausbildung sprechen bis zu einem gewissen Grade Schwedisch, während fast alle Schwedischsprachigen Suomi finnland beherrschen. Trinkgelder haben nie so recht zum finnischen Lebensstil gepasst.
Helsingin tuomiokirkko Helsingfors domkyrka Helsinki Lutheran Cathedral. Uspenskin katedraali Uspenskijkatedralen Uspenski Cathedral, Helsinki.
Finlandia-talo Finlandiahuset Finlandia Hall, Helsinki. Member states of the European Union. Retrieved from " https: Finland Gallery pages of Finland.
Views View Edit History. Meet Konsta - the Squirrel Whisperer. These videos really hit the spot lately: Exploring the autumnal Lapland.
Meet Paula - the Lighthouse Keeper. A refreshing dip in icy water? Slipping … Watch video. Find the Finn in you …with our generators: Explore our four regions: For example, the universal suffrage was, in practice, virtually meaningless, since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament.
Desire for independence gained ground, first among radical liberals  and socialists. Since the head of state was the tsar of Russia, it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution.
The Parliament, controlled by social democrats, passed the so-called Power Act to give the highest authority to the Parliament.
This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Government which decided to dissolve the Parliament. New elections were conducted, in which right-wing parties won with a slim majority.
Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament and thus the ensuing elections were extralegal.
The two nearly equally powerful political blocs, the right-wing parties and the social democratic party, were highly antagonized. The October Revolution in Russia changed the geopolitical situation anew.
Suddenly, the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland, as the Bolsheviks took power in Russia.
Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier, the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December On 27 January , the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events.
The government started to disarm the Russian forces in Pohjanmaa , and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup.
This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. The Whites , who were supported by Imperial Germany , prevailed over the Reds.
Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. The civil war and activist expeditions into Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations.
The Finnish—Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in , largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga Finnish: Petsamo and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.
Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the anti-Communist Lapua Movement. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.
Army officers were trained in France, and relations with Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. In , the population was 3 million.
Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war, increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.
This was followed by the Lapland War of —, when Finland fought retreating German forces in northern Finland. The treaties signed in and with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations, restraints, and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions in addition to those in the Moscow Peace Treaty of Almost the whole population, some , people , fled these areas.
The former Finnish territory now constitutes part of Russia's Republic of Karelia. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and it retained its independence, but at a loss of about 93, soldiers.
Finland rejected Marshall aid , in apparent deference to Soviet desires. However, the United States provided secret development aid and helped the Social Democratic Party, in hopes of preserving Finland's independence.
Valmet was founded to create materials for war reparations. After the reparations had been paid off, Finland continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade.
The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. Officially claiming to be neutral , Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union.
This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonen against his opponents. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from on, which was crucial for his continued popularity.
In politics, there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet.
This phenomenon was given the name " Finlandization " by the West German press. Despite close relations with the Soviet Union, Finland maintained a market economy.
Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets, which explains the widespread support that pro-Soviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland.
Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era, and by Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th-highest in the world.
In the s and 80s, Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. In , President Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.
Finland reacted cautiously to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but swiftly began increasing integration with the West.
On 21 September , Finland unilaterally declared the Paris Peace Treaty obsolete, following the German reunification decision nine days earlier.
Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis , the collapse of its largest trading partner the Soviet Union , and a global economic downturn caused a deep early s recession in Finland.
The depression bottomed out in , and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. Financial and product market regulation were loosened.
Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. The Finnish Lakeland is the area with the most lakes in the country.
Much of the geography of Finland is a result of the Ice Age. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared with the rest of Europe.
Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers.
These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand, running northwest to southeast, where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland.
Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers, terrain in Finland is rising due to the post-glacial rebound.
As a result, the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: The landscape is covered mostly by coniferous taiga forests and fens , with little cultivated land.
The forest consists of pine , spruce , birch , and other species. The most common type of rock is granite.
It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery, visible wherever there is no soil cover. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil, covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin.
Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. Gleysols and peat bogs occupy poorly drained areas.
Phytogeographically , Finland is shared between the Arctic, central European, and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.
According to the WWF , the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland.
On the southwestern coast, south of the Helsinki- Rauma line, forests are characterized by mixed forests, that are more typical in the Baltic region.
In the extreme north of Finland, near the tree line and Arctic Ocean, Montane Birch forests are common. Similarly, Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna.
There are at least sixty native mammalian species, breeding bird species, over 70 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago.
Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear the national animal , gray wolf , wolverine , and elk.
Three of the more striking birds are the whooper swan , a large European swan and the national bird of Finland; the Western capercaillie , a large, black-plumaged member of the grouse family; and the Eurasian eagle-owl.
The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation.
Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. The endangered Saimaa ringed seal , one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland, down to only seals today.
It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation. The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone.
In the Köppen climate classification , the whole of Finland lies in the boreal zone , characterized by warm summers and freezing winters.
Within the country, the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate.
Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude , such as Alaska , Siberia , and southern Greenland.
In northern Finland, particularly in Lapland, the winters are long and cold, while the summers are relatively warm but short.
The winter of the north lasts for about days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions, while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.
A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels.
At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.
Finland consists of 19 regions , called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region.
The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education.
In addition, the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. Currently, the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu.
Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils, each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population. In addition to inter-municipal cooperation, which is the responsibility of regional councils, each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and entrepreneurial affairs.
The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region.
Regions represent dialectal, cultural, and economic variations better than the former provinces , which were purely administrative divisions of the central government.
Historically, regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland , areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately.
The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities , which may also call themselves towns or cities.
They account for half of public spending. Spending is financed by municipal income tax, state subsidies, and other revenue.
As of [update] , there are municipalities,  and most have fewer than 6, residents. In addition to municipalities, two intermediate levels are defined.
Municipalities co-operate in seventy sub-regions and nineteen regions. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers.
Sami people have a semi-autonomous Sami native region in Lapland for issues on language and culture. The figures are as of 31 August The capital region — comprising Helsinki , Vantaa , Espoo and Kauniainen — forms a continuous conurbation of over 1.
However, common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities, e. The Constitution of Finland defines the political system; Finland is a parliamentary republic within the framework of a representative democracy.
The Prime Minister is the country's most powerful person. The current version of the constitution was enacted on 1 March , and was amended on 1 March Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary, municipal, presidential and European Union elections.
Suomen tasavallan presidentti ; in Swedish: Finland has had for most of its independence a semi-presidential system , but in the last few decades the powers of the President have been diminished.
In constitution amendments, which came into effect in or and also with a new drafted constitution of , amended in , the President's position has become primarily a ceremonial office.
However, the President still leads the nation's foreign politics together with the Council of State and is the commander-in-chief of the Defence Forces.
Direct, one- or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms.
The current president is Sauli Niinistö ; he took office on 1 March Former presidents were K. Relander — , P. Mannerheim — , J. The current president was elected from the ranks of the National Coalition Party for the first time since The presidency between and the present was instead held by a member of the Social Democratic Party or the Centre Party.
The member unicameral Parliament of Finland Finnish: Riksdag exercises supreme legislative authority in the country. It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws, dismiss the cabinet, and override presidential vetoes.
Its acts are not subject to judicial review; the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament's constitutional law committee.
The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies through open list multi-member districts.
Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. The speaker of the parliament is Paula Risikko National Coalition. Since universal suffrage was introduced in , the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party former Agrarian Union , the National Coalition Party , and the Social Democrats.
Their lowest common total of MPs, , was reached in the elections. For a few decades after , the Communists were a strong fourth party.
Due to the electoral system of proportional representation, and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties, the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another.
However, there have been some long-term trends, such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War; the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberals and its predecessors from to ; and the rise of the Green League since In the elections, the Finns Party achieved exceptional success, increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats, surpassing the Centre Party.
The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime Minister, endorsed by the President. This procedure has never been used, although the parliament was dissolved eight times under the pre constitution, when this action was the sole prerogative of the president.
After the parliamentary elections on 19 April , the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: After parliamentary elections, the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet the Finnish Government , which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament.
The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence, although this rarely happens the last time in , as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament.
The cabinet exercises most executive powers, and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland , and consists of him or her, of other ministers, and of the Chancellor of Justice.
The current prime minister is Juha Sipilä Centre Party. Each minister heads his or her ministry, or, in some cases, has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy.
After the prime minister, the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. The incumbent Minister of Finance is Petteri Orpo. As no one party ever dominates the parliament, Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions.
As a rule, the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest.
The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.
Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts käräjäoikeus , tingsrätt , regional appellate courts hovioikeus , hovrätt , and the Supreme Court korkein oikeus , högsta domstolen.
The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts hallinto-oikeus , förvaltningsdomstol and the Supreme Administrative Court korkein hallinto-oikeus , högsta förvaltningsdomstolen.
In addition to the regular courts, there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders.
Some crime types are above average, notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption, which was more common in the s and 80s.
In , Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the members of parliament.
The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians. According to the constitution, the president currently Sauli Niinistö leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government, except that the president has no role in EU affairs.
Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems, one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents, Finns, and non-citizens.
Since the s the social security has been cut back, but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world. Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II, the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens, but could intervene benevolently on their behalf.
According to some social historians, the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing.
Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries, but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.
The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers mainly officers and technical personnel , currently serving conscripts, and a large reserve.
A universal male conscription is in place, under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian non-armed service.
Approximately women choose voluntary military service every year. The army consists of a highly mobile field army backed up by local defence units.
The army defends the national territory and its military strategy employs the use of the heavily forested terrain and numerous lakes to wear down an aggressor, instead of attempting to hold the attacking army on the frontier.
Finnish defence expenditure per capita is one of the highest in the European Union. The term total means that all sectors of the government and economy are involved in the defence planning.
The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence currently General Jarmo Lindberg , who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command.
The branches of the military are the army , the navy , and the air force. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness.
At first he was reported be a casual Arabic student, however only later it was published that his studies were about jihadists, terrorism, and that he was employed by the military.
In May , Finnish Military sent nearly one million letters to all relevant males in the country, informing them about their roles in the war effort.
It was globally speculated that Finland was preparing for war—however Finland claimed that this was a standard procedure, yet something never done before in Finnish history.
The economy of Finland has a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as those of France, Germany, Belgium , or the UK.
Primary production represents 2. The gross domestic product peaked in As of [update] , the country's economy is at the level.
Finland has significant timber, mineral iron , chromium , copper , nickel , and gold , and freshwater resources.
Forestry , paper factories, and the agricultural sector on which taxpayers spend [ clarification needed ] around 3 billion euros annually are important for rural residents so any policy changes affecting these sectors are politically sensitive for politicians dependent on rural votes.
Knowledge-intensive services have also resulted in the smallest and slow-growth sectors — especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing — being ranked the second largest after Ireland.
Finland is highly integrated into the global economy, and international trade produces one third of GDP. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except for agricultural policy.
Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient, but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months, making summer droughts a constant threat.
In response to the climate, farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops, and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts.
Most farmland was originally either forest or swamp, and the soil has usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to improve fertility.
Irrigation has generally not been necessary, but drainage systems are often needed to remove excess water. Finland's agriculture has been efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries.
Forests play a key role in the country's economy, making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.
As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.
To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products, Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.
In , the government published the Forest plan, drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Private sector employees amount to 1. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US.
The unemployment rate was 9. As of [update] , 2. The average size is 2. Residential buildings total 1. The average residential property without land costs 1, euro per sq metre and residential land 8.
The average total household consumption was 20, euro, out of which housing consisted of about 5, euro, transport about 3, euro, food and beverages excluding alcoholic beverages at around 2, euro, and recreation and culture at around 2, euro.
However, second quarter of saw a slow economic growth. Unemployment rate fell to a near one-decade low in June, marking private consumption growth much higher.
As of [update] , Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU equal to France. In , the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter.
This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7. Energy companies are about to increase nuclear power production, as in July the Finnish parliament granted permits for additional two new reactors.
The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual state operated road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.
The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki Airport with about 17 million passengers in Oulu Airport is the second largest, whilst another 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.
Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle i. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. The journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours.
The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari Harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port after completion in and others include Kotka , Hamina , Hanko , Pori , Rauma , and Oulu.
There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn , Mariehamn , Stockholm and Travemünde.
The Helsinki-Tallinn route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world, has also been served by a helicopter line. Initially, most development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" metalliteollisuus and "forest industry" metsäteollisuus.
Fimmic develops intelligent, cloud-based software solutions for digital microscopy, speeding up tissue analysis and enabling better patient care.
It tastes divine, goes great with coffee or tea, and forms part of the fabric of Finnish society. To experience the best that Finland has to offer, you really have to try a korvapuusti.
Claned Group combines AI with Finnish educational expertise and data analytics to provide a personalised online learning platform.
Dare to Learn Sept 18—19, in Helsinki bills itself as the festival for rethinking learning. In , you can order design items for immediate delivery as easily as you order food online.
Two Finnish companies show the way away from plastic Cosmetics containers and disposable coffee cups are some of the products for which Finnish companies are offering plastic-free alternatives.
A busy man, his office is open all year round - not just during Christmas-time. A cruise on Arctic Icebreaker Sampo leaves even the most seasoned seafarers awestruck.
Winter is a magical time to visit Finland and the traditional Christmas markets make this time of year especially festive.
The reindeer is an icon of Finnish Lapland, and sleigh rides are a great way of experiencing the Arctic wilderness. One weekend our group of young Finns took their pack-packs, sleeping bags and cameras and set out to explore the untouched wilderness of Lapland.
Bengtskär is the tallest lighthouse in the Nordic countries. Paula Wilson, the lighthouse keeper there, explains the magic of the historical building and its surroundings.
Believe it or not, swimming in a hole in the ice really does you the world of good. Consonants are as follows, where consonants in parenthesis are found only in a few recent loans, and may be mispronounced by uneducated speakers.
Almost all consonants have phonemic short and long geminated forms, although length is only constrastive in consonants word-medially.
Consonant clusters are mostly absent in native Finnish words, except for a small set of two-consonant sequences in syllable codas , e. However, because of a number of recently adopted loanwords that have them, e.
Finnish is somewhat divergent from other Uralic languages in two respects: Palatalization is characteristic of Uralic languages, but Finnish has lost it.
However, the Eastern dialects and the Karelian language have redeveloped a system of palatalization. A feature of Finnic phonology is the development of labial and rounded vowels in non-initial syllables, as in the word tyttö.
Proto-Uralic had only 'a' and 'i' and their vowel harmonic allophones in non-initial syllables; modern Finnish allows other vowels in non-initial syllables, although they are uncommon compared to 'a', 'ä' and 'i'.
Characteristic features of Finnish common to some other Uralic languages are vowel harmony and an agglutinative morphology; owing to the extensive use of the latter, words can be quite long.
The main stress is always on the first syllable, and it is articulated by adding approximately ms more length to the stressed vowel.
However, stress is not strong and words appear evenly stressed. In some cases, stress is so weak that the highest points of volume, pitch and other indicators of "articulation intensity" are not on the first syllable, although native speakers recognize the first syllable as a stressed syllable.
Finnish has several morphophonological processes that require modification of the forms of words for daily speech.
The most important processes are vowel harmony and consonant gradation. For example, from the stem tuote "product" one derives t uo tteeseens a "into his product" , where the final vowel becomes the back vowel 'a' rather than the front vowel 'ä' because the initial syllable contains the back vowels 'uo'.
This is especially notable because vowels 'a' and 'ä' are different, meaning-distinguishing phonemes , not interchangeable or allophonic.
Finnish front vowels are not umlauts. Consonant gradation is a partly nonproductive  lenition process for P, T and K in inherited vocabulary, with the oblique stem "weakened" from the nominative stem, or vice versa.
For example, tar kk a "precise" has the oblique stem tar k a- , as in tarkan "of the precise". There is also another gradation pattern, which is older, and causes simple elision of T and K in suffixes.
However, it is very common since it is found in the partitive case marker: Finnish is a synthetic language that employs extensive regular agglutination of modifiers to verbs, nouns, adjectives and numerals.
However, Finnish is not a polysynthetic language , although non-finite dependent clauses may be contracted to infinitives lauseenvastike , e.
The morphosyntactic alignment is nominative—accusative; but there are two object cases: The contrast between the two is telic , where the accusative case denotes actions completed as intended Ammuin hirven "I shot killed the elk" , and the partitive case denotes incomplete actions Ammuin hirveä "I shot at the elk".
Often this is confused with perfectivity , but the only element of perfectivity that exists in Finnish is that there are some perfective verbs.
Transitivity is distinguished by different verbs for transitive and intransitive, e. There are several frequentative and momentane verb categories.
Verbs gain personal suffixes for each person; these suffixes are grammatically more important than pronouns, which are often not used at all in standard Finnish.
The infinitive is not the uninflected form but has a suffix -ta or -da ; the closest one to an uninflected form is the third person singular indicative.
The passive voice sometimes called impersonal or indefinite resembles a "fourth person" similar to, e. There are four tenses, namely present, past, perfect and pluperfect; the system mirrors the Germanic system.
The future tense is not needed, because of context and the telic contrast. For example, luen kirjan "I read a book completely " indicates a future, when luen kirjaa "I read a book not yet complete " indicates present.
Nouns may be suffixed with the markers for the aforementioned accusative case and partitive case , the genitive case , eight different locatives , and a few other cases.
The case marker must be added not only to the main noun, but also to its modifiers; e. Possession is marked with a possessive suffix ; separate possessive pronouns are unknown.
Pronouns gain suffixes just as nouns do. Finnish has a smaller core vocabulary than, for example, English, and uses derivative suffixes to a greater extent.
As an example, take the word kirja "a book", from which one can form derivatives kirjain "a letter" of the alphabet , kirje "a piece of correspondence, a letter", kirjasto "a library", kirjailija "an author", kirjallisuus "literature", kirjoittaa "to write", kirjoittaja "a writer", kirjuri "a scribe, a clerk", kirjallinen "in written form", kirjata "to write down, register, record", kirjasin "a font", and many others.
Here are some of the more common such suffixes. Which of each pair is used depends on the word being suffixed in accordance with the rules of vowel harmony.
Verbal derivational suffixes are extremely diverse; several frequentatives and momentanes differentiating causative , volitional-unpredictable and anticausative are found, often combined with each other, often denoting indirection.
For example, hypätä "to jump", hyppiä "to be jumping", hypeksiä "to be jumping wantonly", hypäyttää "to make someone jump once", hyppyyttää "to make someone jump repeatedly" or "to boss someone around" , hyppyytyttää "to make someone to cause a third person to jump repeatedly", hyppyytellä "to, without aim, make someone jump repeatedly", hypähtää "to jump suddenly" in anticausative meaning , hypellä "to jump around repeatedly", hypiskellä "to be jumping repeatedly and wantonly".
Caritives are also used in such examples as hyppimättä "without jumping" and hyppelemättä "without jumping around".
The diversity and compactness of both derivation and inflectional agglutination can be illustrated with istahtaisinkohan "I wonder if I should sit down for a while" from istua , "to sit, to be seated":.
Over the course of many centuries, the Finnish language has borrowed many words from a wide variety of languages, most from neighbouring Indo-European languages.
Indeed, some estimates put the core Proto-Uralic vocabulary surviving in Finnish at only around word roots. In general, the first loan words into Uralic languages seem to come from very early Indo-European languages.
Later important sources have been, depending on the language, Indo-Iranian , Turkic , Baltic , Germanic , and Slavic languages. Finnic languages, including Finnish, have borrowed in particular from Baltic and Germanic languages, and to a lesser extent from Slavic and Indo-Iranian languages.
Furthermore, a certain group of very basic and neutral words exists in Finnish and other Finnic languages that are absent from other Uralic languages, but without a recognizable etymology from any known language.
These words are usually regarded [ who? Also some place names, like Päijänne and Imatra , are probably from before the proto-Finnic era.
The original Finnish emo occurs only in restricted contexts. There are other close-kinship words that are loaned from Baltic and Germanic languages morsian "bride", armas "dear", huora "whore".
More recently, Swedish has been a prolific source of borrowings, and also, the Swedish language acted as a proxy for European words, especially those relating to government.
Present-day Finland was a part of Sweden from the 12th century and was ceded to Russia in , becoming an autonomous Grand Duchy.
Swedish was retained as the official language and language of the upper class even after this. When Finnish was accepted as an official language, it gained legal equal status with Swedish.
During the period of autonomy, Russian did not gain much ground as a language of the people or the government.
Nevertheless, quite a few words were subsequently acquired from Russian especially in older Helsinki slang but not to the same extent as with Swedish.
In all these cases, borrowing has been partly a result of geographical proximity. Typical Russian loanwords are old or very old, thus hard to recognize as such, and concern everyday concepts, e.
Notably, a few religious words such as Raamattu "Bible" are borrowed from Russian, which indicates language contact preceding the Swedish era.
This is mainly believed to be result of trade with Novgorod from the 9th century on and Russian Orthodox missions in the east in the 13th century.
Most recently, and with increasing impact, English has been the source of new loanwords in Finnish. The importance of English as the language of global commerce has led many non-English companies, including Finland's Nokia , to adopt English as their official operating language.
Recently, it has been observed that English borrowings are also ousting previous borrowings, for example the switch from treffailla "to date" from Swedish, träffa to deittailla from English "to go for a date".
Calques from English are also found, e. Grammatical calques are also found, for example, the replacement of the impersonal passiivi with the English-style generic you , e.
This construct, however, is limited to colloquial language, as it is against the standard grammar. However, this does not mean that Finnish is threatened by English.
Borrowing is normal language evolution, and neologisms are coined actively not only by the government, but also by the media.
Moreover, Finnish and English have a considerably different grammar , phonology and phonotactics , discouraging direct borrowing.
English loan words in Finnish slang include for example pleikkari "PlayStation", hodari "hot dog", and hedari "headache", "headshot" or "headbutt".
Often these loanwords are distinctly identified as slang or jargon , rarely being used in a negative mood or in formal language. Neologisms are actively generated by the Language Planning Office and the media.
They are widely adopted. One would actually give an old-fashioned or rustic impression using forms such as kompuutteri computer or kalkulaattori calculator when the neologism is widely adopted.
Finnish is written with the Swedish variant of the Latin alphabet but with two more letters that are from some Russian loanwords. The Finnish orthography follows the phoneme principle: This enables an easy spelling and facilitates reading and writing acquisition.
The rule of thumb for Finnish orthography is: However, morphemes retain their spelling despite sandhi.
When the appropriate characters are not available, the graphemes ä and ö are usually converted to a and o , respectively. This is common in e-mail addresses and other electronic media where there may be no support for characters outside the basic ASCII character set.
Writing them as ae and oe , following German usage, is rarer and usually considered incorrect, but formally used in passports and equivalent situations.
Both conversion rules have minimal pairs which would no longer be distinguished from each other.